Early Online

The articles shown below have been posted as Early Online Release articles. These articles have been peer reviewed, copyedited, and reviewed by the authors. Additional changes or corrections may appear in these articles when they are published in a future issue of the “Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports". When articles are published in an issue, it will be removed from this page and appear in that issue’s table of contents.


  • Participation tactics of elite freestyle wrestlers in competition system in 2013-2016 Olympic cycle
    Olha R. Zadorozhna | Lviv State University of Physical Culture named after Ivan Bobers’kyy | http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6318-1660
    Yuriy A. Briskin | Lviv State University of Physical Culture named after Ivan Bobers’kyy | http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6375-9872
    Maryan P. Pityn | Lviv State University of Physical Culture named after Ivan Bobers’kyy | http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3537-4745
    Viktoriia Yu. Bohuslavska | Vinnytsia State Pedagogical University named after Mykhailo Kotsyubynsky | http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3609-5518
    Ivan G. Hlukhov | Kherson State University | http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4226-5253
    Early Online 2021-06-17 | pages: 275 - 285 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0502
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. Tactics is one of the basic terms underlying the management of competitive activities of athletes. In freestyle wrestling, the participation tactics of athletes in the competition system is covered fragmentally and needs proper justification. The purpose of the study was to determine the features of the participation tactics of elite athletes in the competition system in freestyle wrestling during 2013-2016 Olympic cycle.
    Materials and Methods. This study analyzes the dynamics of performances and results of 24 elite freestyle wrestlers who won gold, silver and bronze medals at the Games of XXXI Olympiad 2016 in Rio de Janeiro in different weight categories (four athletes in each of six weight categories). To do this, we used athletes’ individual profiles on the United World Wrestling. Used an expert assessment devoted to the issues of tactics and tactical training. The experts (n = 8) were well educated (3 among them held Ph.D. diplomas) and experienced – 2 coaches of Ukrainian national team, and 1 athlete–national team’s member. On average, experts had almost 10 years of experience in training wrestlers of different ages. The results were processed using Microsoft Excel software.
    Results. The volume of competition practice of elite athletes during 2013-2016 changed in each season. In the 2013 season, the average group number of competitions in which athletes participated was 3.84 ± 2.06, in 2014 – 3.50 ± 1.79. In the 2015 season, those indicators were the highest – 4.17 ± 1.87, but in 2016 they decreased to 3.71 ± 1.52. The participation tactics in the competition system in freestyle wrestling during the season and the four-year cycle differed depending on the dynamics of sports results. Four types of tactics used by the elite athletes in freestyle wrestling in 2013-2016 were identified: leadership holding, gradual improving of results, combined, leadership returning. It was found that during 2013-2016, most athletes (58.33-79.17%) used a variety of tactics that involved performances in one Olympic weight category. In 2014 and 2015, some athletes (20.83 and 25.00%, respectively) used different options in other weight categories, choosing one of them as a priority and one or two – as additional.
    Conclusions. There are four types of participation tactics in the competition system in freestyle wrestling. In 2013-2016 Olympic cycle they included leadership holding, gradual increase of results, combined, leadership return. The main differences between types of tactics are the volume of competition practice, the dynamics of results, the choice of weight category. The most relevant was the type of tactics with performances exclusively in the Olympic weight category during four seasons.
  • A biomechanical examination of the inclusion of active flexibility in artistic gymnastic movements requiring mobility
    Milaim Berisha | Istanbu Gelisim University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0353-7247
    Early Online 2021-06-14 | pages: 267 - 274 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0501
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. The purpose of the study is a biomechanical examination of the inclusion of active flexibility in artistic gymnastic movements requiring mobility (muscles' ability to stretch), flexibility and other motor abilities such as force, power, etc.
    Material and Methods. The study included 17 girl gymnasts aged 7-9 years old, with a body height of 140.7±10.2, weight of 34.1±6.4, and a body mass index of 17.6±3.0. Data collection in the study was made by using performance tests developed by FIG such as a Forward-Backward Split, Side Spit, Arm-Trunk Angle Backward, Trunk Bent Forward, Leg Raise forward, Leg Raise Sideward, Bridge, Standing long Jump, Lift Trunk Forward-60secs, Angle Degree of the Leg Split Position in Cartwheel, and Arm-Upper Body Angle Backward in Bridge Technique. The Kinovea 0.8.15 program was used in the data analysis of the variables in the study. The SPSS 24 software program was used for the data analysis. Percentages of the angle degree calculated by the formula “%= (angle0 of the mobility in functional movement / angle0 of the active flexibility) *100” were found.
    Results. Results indicate that active flexibility was 90% functional in the leg raise sideward, 90% in the leg split during execution of the cartwheel, 17.5% in the bridge technique, and completely functional for the flexibility ratio expressed in the leg raise forward technique. In the analysis of the various elements of the similar biomechanics, the anatomic structure and similar body planes, it was concluded that active flexibility expressed in the movements required a mobility of around 65-75%.
    Conclusions.. it was determined that the functionality rate of the techniques requiring active flexibility and requiring mobility of the same biomechanical and anatomical structure was around 65-75%. Therefore, to execute 100% of the flexibility in action (during active elements) as it is in a passively or actively, it may significantly increase force, motor control, dynamic balance, coordination etc., in the large range of motion.
  • Effect of different training models on motoric and swimming performance in prepubescent swimmers
    İsmet Alagöz | Ministry of Youth and Sports | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2538-3699
    Sema Can | Hitit University | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1931-2226
    Erkan Demirkan | Hitit University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6243-8062
    Tuğrul Özkadı | Hitit University | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9336-6957
    Emre Demir | Hitit University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3834-3864
    Early Online 2021-06-18 | pages: 286 - 295 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0503
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different training programs on the improvement of motoric and swimming performance prepubescent swimmers.
    Material and Methods. Forty-five children between the ages of 9 -11 years with at least 2 years of training experiences, participated in the study. Three different [(1) dry-land with elastic resistance band group + swimming (ERB); (2) dry-land without elastic resistance band (DL) + swimming and (3) swimming group (SG) with swimming training alone] training group were formed. And a 12-week training program was implemented thought the study. Biceps, chest, waist, hip, thigh body circumference measurements were taken from all participants. Vertical jump (VJ), flexed-arm strength (FAS), speed, upper body strength (UBS), Standing horizontal jump (SHJ), flexibility, aerobic endurance (AE), balance, and 50 m freestyle swimming (FS) score were tested on the participants. As statistical analysis, normality and homogeneity of variance assumption were checked (Shapiro-Wilk and Levene tests, respectively). A non-normal distribution was found. The values of each variable were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, and median. The training effects within the groups were evaluated using analyses of Friedman for repeated measures and the level of significance was set at p<0.05 for all tests.
    Results. There was a significant difference in SHJ, UBS, FAS, speed, and FS score among the assessment times 1-3 and 1-4 in both of ERB and DL training groups (p<0.05). ERB and DL training were significantly effective compared to the SG on VJ, FAS, speed, UBS, and freestyle swimming performance (p<0.05).
    Conclusions: The study findings showed that DL training more effected relatively on motoric performance.
  • Functional preparedness of women of the first period of mature age of different somatotypes
    Viacheslav M. Miroshnichenko | Vinnytsia Mykhailo Kotsiubynskyi State Pedagogical University | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1139-4554
    Yuriy M. Furman | Vinnytsia Mykhailo Kotsiubynskyi State Pedagogical University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5206-7712
    Viktoriia Yu. Bohuslavska | Vinnytsia Mykhailo Kotsiubynskyi State Pedagogical University | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3609-5518
    Oleksandra Yu. Brezdeniuk | Vinnytsia Mykhailo Kotsiubynskyi State Pedagogical University | http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0844-8777
    Svitlana V. Salnykova | Vinnytsia Institute of Trade and Economics of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4675-6105
    Oksana P. Shvets | Vinnytsia Mykhailo Kotsiubynskyi State Pedagogical University | http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8038-1533
    Maryna O. Boiko | Vinnytsia Mykhailo Kotsiubynskyi State Pedagogical University | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0539-2966
    Early Online 2021-08-30 | pages: 296 - 304 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0504
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. It is believed that the somatotype is a predictor of indicators of functional readiness. There are significant differences in the aerobic performance of the body for people of different somatotypes among students girls and men. Features of manifestation of anaerobic possibilities of an organism at persons of various somatotypes from 7 to 30 years old are described. We can assume that women of the first adulthood period of different somatotypes, indicators of functional readiness are manifested in different ways. The aim of the study was to identify the features of aerobic, anaerobic lactate and anaerobic alactate productivity of women of the first period of mature age of different somatotypes.
    Material and Methods. The study involved 210 females 25-35 years old. Somatotype was determined in all subjects. Functional readiness was determined by indicators of anaerobic lactatic productivity, anaerobic alactatic productivity and aerobic productivity of the organism. The power of aerobic energy supply processes was investigated by VO2max. To determine the VO2max used cycling ergometric version of the PWC 170 test. The subjects was performed a stepwise increasing load on the ergometer to determine the TAM. At the end of each stage, heart rate was recorded. The TAM level corresponded to the inflection point on the heart rate growth chart. The capacity of anaerobic lactate processes of energy supply was investigated by indicator of the maximum quantity of mechanical work for 1 minute (MQMK). The subjects performed a bicycle ergometric load duration 1 min with a power of 225 W with a maximum pedaling frequency. The power of anaerobic lactate processes of energy supply was determined by the Wingate anaerobic test WAnT 30. The power of anaerobic alactate processes of energy supply was determined by the test WAnT 10. Statistical processing was performed using the program STATISTICA 13.
    Results. According to absolute indicators (WAnT10. WAnT30. MQMK, TAM, VO2max) the advantage of representatives of endomorphic-mesomorphic somatotype was established. According to relative indicators of aerobic productivity (TAM, VO2max) representatives of the ectomorphic and balanced somatotype predominate.
    Conclusions. High values of absolute indicators of functional readiness are associated with high values ​​of body mass in combination with a high percentage of muscle for women of different somatotypes.  Accordingly, for representatives of somatotypes with lower body mass are characterized by lower absolute values ​​of all indicators of functional fitness. The relative indicators of aerobic productivity are dominated by representatives of somatotypes, which are characterized by lower body mass.
  • Women's 50km racewalking tactic using pace strategy analysis at World Championships
    Mohamed Megahed | Arish University | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4355-7653
    Rasha Ali | Arish University | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4460-3738
    Zahraa Tarek | Mansoura University | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9389-2850
    Early Online 2021-08-26 | pages: 319 - 332 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0507
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. We aim to design a walking tactic depending on pace strategy analysis for women's 50km racewalking at two IAAF championships: World Racewalking Team Championships Taicang2018 and World Athletics Championships Doha2019.Material and Methods. We collected data from the records of the women's 50km racewalking results from both mentioned championships in which the times of 10 stages of 5km each. The research sample included 30 racewalkers (top 15 from each championship) aged 21 to 41. Results. Results indicate that elite racewalkers followed a variable pace strategy. As they started a 50km racewalking with a slow and appropriate speed. Then there was a gradual increase in the next stages until reaching the speed plateau (25km). After that, the speed was changed between increasing and decreasing until the end of the race. The results also indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between the performance time of all the stages in both championships. In addition, it is indicated that there are statistically significant differences using the T-test between all stages between both championships, except for the stage (10th 5km). So last 5km have no major impact on changes for the final classification. Conclusions. We divided the race into seven successive tactical phases depending on the speed and the effort rate during the race stages. These phases are slow start, primary acceleration and speed regulation, the maximum speed, transitional, final acceleration, deceleration, and finish. Our analysis can extend theoretical knowledge, so coaches and racewalkers can make use of it in designing the training programs.
  • The level of physical activity of university students in Slovakia during COVID - 19 pandemic
    Dávid Líška | Matej Bel University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5700-1341
    Miroslava Barcalová | Technical University of Košice | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2393-7085
    Erika Liptáková | Technical University of Košice | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6016-0757
    Ľudmila Jančoková | Matej Bel University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8435-2673
    Ľuboš Vojtaško | Technical University of Košice | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3835-0463
    Daniel Gurín | Slovak Medical University in Bratislava | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8796-9110
    Early Online 2021-08-13 | pages: 305 - 312 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0505
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic has affected several areas of human and public life. The implementation of the restrictions affects free movement, leading to limited physical activity (PA) level. The main aim of the study was to determine the level of PA of university students in Slovakia during COVID–19 pandemics.
    Material and Methods. The sample consisted of 3128 university students. Data was obtained from students from three universities with different specializations. A questionnaire about lifestyle with questions about physical activity was used. The questionnaire was distributed using online communication systems of universities. The online questionnaire was answered by 3128 students.
    Results. Analyzed data were obtained from 3128 students. The results indicate that 38% of all students exercise 3-4 times per week, while 41% exercise 1-2 times per week, and 21% do not exercise at all, or exercise 1-2 times per month. Found weak positive correlation (r=0,337) was between the exercise frequency and perception of well-being, and a very weak positive correlation (r=0,187) between the exercise frequency and stress intensity. A moderate positive correlation was found between the perception of health and life energy (r=0,579). A moderate positive correlation was observed between the perception of health and physical strength (r=0,579).
    Conclusions. COVID-19 restrictions have been associated with the reduction of physical activity of the students. To avoid the negative effects of a sedentary lifestyle, it is necessary to promote activity among university students.
  • Effects of low intensity interval training on physiological variables of university students
    Assegid K. Ketema | Arba Minch University | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1494-0071
    Early Online 2021-08-26 | pages: 333 - 341 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0508
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. This study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity interval training on the physiological variables of university students.
    Material and Methods. Forty male sports science students aged 18-25 years were randomly assigned to the Experimental group (n=20) and the Control group (n=20). The Experimental group underwent low-intensity interval training for eight weeks, whereas the Control group did not. Measurements of physiological variables such as resting heart rate, respiratory rate, recovery heart rate, breath-hold time, maximal oxygen uptake, and blood pressure were obtained for all subjects before and after the intervention. To compare the mean physiological variables between the experimental and control groups, an independent samples t-test was used.
    Results. Statistical significance was set at p 0.05. After the training intervention, the experimental group showed significantly better improvements than the control group in resting heart rate, respiratory rate, recovery heart rate, breath-holding time, maximal oxygen uptake, and blood pressure (p 0.05). Post intervention maximum oxygen uptake was statistically significant with t (38) = 3.086, p value 0.004. Post experiment systolic blood pressure was statistically significant with t (38) = -2.405, p value 0.021 for low intensity interval training and control group. Post experiment diastolic blood pressure was statistically highly significant with t (38) = 0.569, p value 0.001 for low intensity interval training and control group. The result of the study showed that there was a significant difference in post rest heart rate, respiratory rate, recovery heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, breath holding and maximal oxygen uptake between the low intensity interval training and the control group (p 0.05).
    Conclusions. Thus, it was concluded that eight weeks of low-intensity interval training show significant improvement in physiological variables of university students.
  • The acute effect of different specific warm-up intensity on one repeat maximum squat performance on basketball players
    Özgür Eken | Inonu University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5488-3158
    Early Online 2021-08-26 | pages: 313 - 318 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0506
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. Squat exercises have some advantages in terms of time, practice and energy costs. It is also an exercise method used in training plan in terms of development of jumping ability in basketball players. Squat performance may vary depending on warm-up types and intensity. It was aimed to determine the effect of different specific warm-up intensities on 1-maximum repetition squat performance (1-RM) on basketball players.
    Materials and Methods. The sample group of the study consisted of 10 men (age: 22.90 ± 1.44 years, height: 188.10 ± 8.06 cm, body weight: 77.92 ± 13.41 kg, BMI: 21.70 ± 2.83), who played basketball regularly for at least 3 years. This group performed 3 different specific warm up intensities on non-consecutive days. Warm up protocols were determined as follows: light jogging for only 5 minutes (NSW), light jogging and % 40 intensity specific warm up (LISW), light jogging and % 80 intensity specific warm up (HISW).
    Results. Participants' 1-RM squat performance was found to be statistically different between NSW (91.10 kg), LISW (95.00 kg), HISW (100,50 kg) respectively (p<0.05). Additionally, 1-RM squat performance values were observed highest after HISW. Rate perceived exertion (RPE) and body temperature (BT) were found highest after HISW.
    Conclusion. As a result of this study, HISW are recommended to basketball coaches and basketball players in order to get more performance before the squat movement.