Early Access

The articles shown below have been posted as Early Access Release articles. These articles have been peer reviewed, copyedited, and reviewed by the authors. Additional changes or corrections may appear in these articles when they are published in a future issue of the “Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports". When articles are published in an issue, it will be removed from this page and appear in that issue’s table of contents.


  • The different influence of speed, agility and aerobic capacity toward soccer skills of youth player
    Komarudin Komarudin | State University of Yogyakarta | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3058-2633
    Suharjana Suharjana | State University of Yogyakarta | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0984-8086
    Yudanto Yudanto | State University of Yogyakarta | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7987-9956
    Moh Nanang Himawan Kusuma | University of Jenderal Soedirman | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9352-824X
    Early Online 2022-10-28 | pages: 381 - 390 | https://doi.org/
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. The significant influence of speed, agility and aerobic fitness on youth soccer performance is described by current football literature. The sensitive phases of age development of students have been stated to have a different influence compared to professional players. The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of speed, agility and aerobic fitness on soccer skills to the Student Activity Units (UKM) of Football.
    Material and Methods. The method used in the correlation research study is a descriptive-quantitative with a cross-sectional approach. The population study was all 35 members of UKM football players and the sample was selected through purposive methods sampling. Furthermore, the instruments to be applied are (1) speed with 30 meters sprint test; (2) agility through a 5-meters shuttle run; (3) aerobic endurance by using the 20m Beep-test protocol; (4) soccer skill using David Lee’s test. The SPSS 28 program was used for the statistical operations in the analytical data technique, followed by prerequisite analysis tests, namely the normality test and homogeneity test, as well as a hypothesis test to confirm the hypothesis.
    Results. The result shows that there is a correlation in positive values between both the independent and dependent variables. Statistical analysis confirms that there is a correlation and positive impact of speed, agility and aerobic capacity of football skills. Significant differences in correlations were found in the speed, agility and aerobic capacity of the participants (p < 0.05).
    Conclusions. Physical activity based on the anaerobic system has a positive effect on individual skills. In contrast, aerobic capacity plays a role more in the complex skills of football games in real situations.
  • Housework-based exercise versus conventional exercise on health-related fitness of adolescent learners
    Jem Cloyd M. Tanucan | Cebu Normal University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9697-2618
    Marino A. Garcia | Cebu Normal University | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9651-8979
    Marlon T. Bojos | Cebu Normal University | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1699-0240
    Early Online 2022-10-28 | pages: 364 - 373 | https://doi.org/
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. There is a void in the literature comparing the fitness effects of housework-based exercise (HBE) and conventional exercise (CE), including studies that adapt housework into an exercise program. This study examines the effectiveness of HBE and CE on adolescent learners' health-related fitness (HRF) and compares the effectiveness of the two exercises.
    Material and Methods. This study uses a parallel-group, randomized controlled trial with 120 adolescent learners; 60 are in the HBE group, and 60 are in the CE group. The participants in the HBE group exercised using housework activities, while the participants in the CE group exercised by doing push and pull, squats, lunges, leaps and jumps, planks, etc. The participants in both groups trained for at least an hour every weekday for 12 weeks under the supervision of qualified fitness instructors.
    Results. The findings show that HBE improves the fitness levels of adolescent learners, albeit it has no significant improvement in their BMI. Furthermore, HBE significantly improves the cardiorespiratory fitness of females more than males. Finally, CE outperforms the HBE in producing more significant and favorable fitness effects.
    Conclusions. When planned, implemented, and monitored carefully as an exercise program, doing housework is just as good as doing traditional exercise for keeping or improving adolescent learners’ fitness. Furthermore, the findings indicate that HBE may be more appropriate for females because it involves household-related tasks that they traditionally perform.However, CE produces more positive and significant fitness effects. Thus, teachers can use HBE in the remote exercise activities of their learners along with CE.
  • An analysis of the relationship between critical velocity and anaerobic speed reserve with match running profile in football
    Hamit Cihan | Trabzon University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7704-1316
    Early Online 2022-10-27 | pages: 353 - 363 | https://doi.org/
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic speed reserve (ASR) with match running profile in football.
    Material and Methods. The research group consisted of fifteen young male football players (n=15, age=16.60±0.51 years, height=177.40±5.25 cm, weight=67.20±5.52 kg, body mass index=21.32±0.96 kg/m2). Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IRT) was performed to determine maximal aerobic speed (MAS). Maximal sprint speed (MSS) was determined by 30-meter sprint test. CV and ADC parameters were obtained by linear regression model (Lin-TD: linear total distance model) between the covered distance and running duration in 800-meter and 2400-meter running tests. A 90-minutes football match was played to determine the subjects’ match running profile (covered distance in every running category), which was examined by means of a global positioning system (GPS) device in five running categories (walking: 0-6.9 km/h, low intensity running: 7-12.9 km/h, middle intensity running: 13-17.9 km/h, high intensity running: 18-20.9 km/h, sprint: >21 km/h). Correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis was employed to analyse the collected data.
    Results. It was found that CV was significantly and positively correlated with total running distance as well as low and middle intensity running (p<0.05). A significant and negative correlation was found between ASR and all match running profiles (p<0.05). Both CV and ASR were significant predictors of high intensity running, maximum running speed and total running distance during match (p<0.05). However, while CV was a significant predictor of sprint running, ASR significantly predicted walking (p<0.05).
    Conclusions. Consequently, it may be concluded that in football, aerobic fitness is positively correlated to CV and negatively to ASR.
  • The influence of jumping performance and coordination on the spike ability of young volleyball athletes
    Guntur Guntur | Yogyakarta State University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1751-533X
    Mohd Izwan Shahril | Sultan Idris Education University | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4178-7308
    Suhadi Suhadi | Yogyakarta State University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1681-2711
    Erwin Setyo Kriswanto | Yogyakarta State University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6421-808X
    Ali Md Nadzalan | Sultan Idris Education University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0621-2245
    Early Online 2022-10-28 | pages: 374 - 380 | https://doi.org/
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. Spike is the most important techniques to be mastered due to its big impacts to volleyball match. There is still lack of study to evaluate and discusses how the role of jumping performance and coordination in volleyball could affect spike ability. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of these variables on spike ability.
    Material and Methods. This study used a quantitative descriptive method, involved 42 participants (20 men and 22 women). The jump performance was measured using MyJump 2 application which can measure flight time, force, jump height, jumping power and speed based on free-arm jumping method. Then, the measurement of coordination was done using an alternative hand wall test. Spike ability is shown by the results of the hit and spike performance. Spike performance was based on The Volleyball Test Skills for Smasher. For spike performance, data collection is based on observations from five phases of spike movement; i) Initial posture; ii) Initial Motion; iii) Motion of Appeal; iv) Advanced Motion; v) Placement of the ball, using the scoring points 1-4. All the data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson Correlation. 
    Results. The results of the study show that in the perspective of gender differences, almost all variables had significant difference between men and women on flight time (0.028 < 0.05), force (0.001 < 0.01), jump height (0.040 < 0). 0.05), strength (0.001 < 0.01), and speed (0.028 < 0.05), coupled with coordination (0.003 < 0.01), hit results (0.181 > 0.05), and spike performance (0.216 > 0.05). Meanwhile, the relationship between variables were found to be significant (p-value < 0.01) on the five jumping performance variables. Another significant correlation obtained from the results of calculations between coordination and jump height (0.033 < 0.05), coordination with strength (0.044 < 0.05), coordination with spike hitting results was significant (0.003 < 0.01). Instead of them, relationship between one and another was not found significant relationship (p-value > 0.05).
    Conclusions. Coaches can use the information in this study as a guideline to develop training program to improve their athletes effectiveness in spiking.
  • The effectiveness of folk physical activity and food education programme on body mass, nutrition knowledge and consumption behaviour among overweight primary school children in Southern Thailand
    Firdaos Saemoh | Thaksin University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5961-3413
    Musara Jeadeng | Thaksin University | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7391-2375
    Dusanee Suwankhong | Assistant Professor | Chamnan Chinnasee | Thaksin University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2597-3840
    Ali Md Nadzalan | Sultan Idris Education University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0621-2245
    Early Online 2022-11-12 | pages: 391 - 398 | https://doi.org/
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. Overweight status among primary school children is recognized a major public health problem in Thailand. As the rates of overweight is higher than the key performance indicator targeted by the government, it is important for necessary measures and actions to be taken to solve the problem. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of folk physical activity and food education program on body mass, nutrition knowledge score and consumption behaviour among overweight primary school children in Southern Thailand.
    Material and Methods. Thirty-eight (N=38) primary school children of grade 4-6 were recruited and divided into experimental group (13 boys and 6 girls) and control group (12 boys and 7 girls). The intervention was conducted in six weeks. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
    Results. Results showed the post-food consumption knowledge and behaviour between experimental and control groups were significantly difference (p<0.001; p<0.05), respectively. Post-body mass of experimental group decreased after participation (p<0.01) and it is in contrast to control group which significantly increased (p<0.01).
    Conclusions. Results demonstrated that the combination of providing appropriate physical activity programme and food consumption education can result in reducing body mass among overweight primary school children. Besides, children can also learn about the food consumption and apply it as behaviour from younger age. Such programme should be promoted among all students continually and should be added and frequently conducted in the school health programme, so that student can do it  as their daily routine towards realizing the national plan of having healthy generations in the future.