Early Online

The articles shown below have been posted as Early Online Release articles. These articles have been peer reviewed, copyedited, and reviewed by the authors. Additional changes or corrections may appear in these articles when they are published in a future issue of the “Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports". When articles are published in an issue, it will be removed from this page and appear in that issue’s table of contents.


  • The effect of plyometric training on performance levels of the shot put technique and its related motor abilities
    Agron Thaqi | Tetovo State University | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7306-0088
    Milaim Berisha | Istanbu Gelisim University | Isa Asllani | Tetovo State University | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3584-6906
    Early Online 2020-11-12 | pages: 144 - 151 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0301
    Abstract Background and Study Aim: The aim of this research is to evaluate the effects of plyometric training on the shot put technique. It was oriented to improve the basics for the development of power related-indicators such as power (explosive force), acceleration speed, and strength endurance.
    Material and Methods. The study sample included 220 male students, aged 16 years ± 6 months from Fehmi Lladrovci High School, Glogoc municipality, Republic of Kosovo from the 2019/2020 academic year. The experimental group (110 male students) applied a 12-week program (see the training program paragraph). The control group (110 male students) continued only with their regular physical education lessons (2 times a week). To determine the differences between pre- and post-test values of the control and experimental groups ANOVA calculations were made. The development percentage in time (between pre-test and post-test) were calculated using the formula: Δ% = (x post-test – x pre-test) / pre-test *100.
    Results: Results of the study show that pre- and post-test average values (tests within subjects) of the shot put technique (p<0.05) were statistically different according to measurement over time (interaction; p<0.05), and in tests between the subjects (p<0.05). The shot put technique (Δ%: 50.88) test of the experimental group (plyo-training) had higher developmental percentages compared to (Δ%: 1.69) the control group (p<0.05). When analyzing the developmental percentage, it was observed that the performance of the shot put technique of the experimental group compared the control group 49.2% more developed. Furthermore, the impact of the plyometric training program in motor abilities related to the shot put technique also observed similar improvements in the impact of the shot put technique.
    Conclusion: In conclusion, the impact of the plyometric training program on motor abilities related to the shot put technique also observed similar results as the training program’s impact on the shot put technique. The applied plyometric training program benefits were not just in the shot put technique but also improved all motor abilities related to the shot put technique such as power, strength endurance, speed and acceleration. Therefore, the development of the shot put technique occurred by an increase in motor abilities related to the shot put technique as a result of the plyometric training program.
  • Effects of 8-week zumba exercise on blood lipids profile in sedentary women
    Mine Turgut | Bartin University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8556-3114
    Yusuf Soylu | Siirt University | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0609-0601
    Early Online 2021-01-28 | pages: 172 - 177 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0305
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. Different aerobic exercise may affect women’s health behaviours. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of 8-week Zumba exercises applied to sedentary women on lipid profile.
    Material and Methods. Fifty voluntary healthy sedentary women with a mean age of 32.1 ± 6.8 years and a mean height of 158.4 ± 15.5 cm participated in the study. Before and after the exercise program, blood samples and body weight were taken on before breakfast in the morning by experts in the appropriate laboratory environment, some environmental measurements. In the analysis of the data, the SPSS 22.0 package program was used to compare the pre-post exercise values (Paired Sample T-Test) as well as descriptive statistics. The effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated to provide the estimation of the comparisons between the pre-test and post-test results of the obtained values.
    Results. According to the results, it was determined that there were significant differences between blood lipids Glucose, Urea, Triglyceride, total High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) levels before and after Zumba exercise program (p <0.05). In addition, it was determined that there was a significant and positive change between the pre-test and post-test BMI values (p <0.05).
    Conclusions. According to the results of the study, it was concluded that the 8-week Zumba exercise program applied to sedentary women had a positive effect on the lipid profiles of women.
  • The relationship of the development of motor skills and socioeconomic status of family with BMI of children with autism disorder
    Ali Akbar Barrodi sedehi | Islamic Azad University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2464-9264
    Abdollah Ghasemi | Islamic Azad University | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7113-6894
    Ali Kashi | Sport Science Research Institute of Iran (SSRI) | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1125-9125
    Elham Azimzadeh | Shahid Beheshti University | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9838-0117
    Early Online 2021-01-11 | pages: 160 - 164 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0303
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. This study aims to examine the relationship between the development of motor skills and the socio-economic status of families with body mass index (BMI) of children with autism disorder.
    Material and Methods. To this end, 68 children with autism at the age range of 6-13 years old were selected for the study. Their parents completed Family Socioeconomic Status Questionnaire. The motor skills level of children was measured by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). The height and weight of children were measured to calculate their BMI. 
    Results. The results of the Pearson correlation test showed that there is a significant and negative relationship between the development of motor skills and the socioeconomic status of families with BMI of children with autism. The results of the linear regression test also indicated that motor development and family socioeconomic status are predictors of BMI in people with autism (P<0.05). 
    Conclusions. It is concluded that the socioeconomic status of the family and the motor development of children with autism are the determinants of their overweight and obesity and these factors should be considered in the interventions for children and families.
  • Functional state dynamics in cross-country skiers in the summer and autumn preparatory phase
    Igor O. Garnov | Komi Science Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2604-2773
    Tatyana P. Loginova | Komi Science Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7003-6664
    Nina G. Varlamova | Komi Science Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1444-4684
    Natalya N. Potolitsyna | Komi Science Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4804-6908
    Alexey A. Chernykh | Komi Science Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1574-5588
    Evgeniy R. Bojko | Komi Science Center of the Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Science | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8027-898X
    Early Online 2021-01-09 | pages: 152 - 159 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0302
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. To study changes in the functional state of professional Russian cross country skiers in the course of the preparatory phase and their effects on their competition ratings.
    Materials and methods. In this study we examined 10 cross-country skiers. The functional state was assessed through a maximal load bicycle ergometer test, coordination and special performance tests. Concentrations of lactate and cortisol were checked in the blood plasma of participants.
    Results. The training effects on general physical preparedness and special physical preparation in September in comparison with June were observed as an increased number of pull-ups on a pull-up bar (by 14%) and decreased time of the roller ski test (by 4%). In autumn higher systolic (by 11%) and diastolic (by 10%) arterial blood pressure levels, higher levels of plasma lactate and cortisol (by 48% and 64%, respectively) were detected (p<0.05). At anaerobic threshold the following increased: total performance capacity (by 13%), oxygen consumption (by 14%), watt pulse (by 5%), respiratory minute volume, oxygen utilization coefficient, and oxygen pulse (by 15%) (p<0.05-0.01) at rest before the ergometer test. In September upon completion of the ergometer test we observed an increase of oxygen pulse (by 7%), watt pulse (by 10%), and oxygen utilization coefficient (by 24%) (p<0.05). In autumn at the 5th minute of recovery after the ergometer test the heart rate recovered 11% faster, blood lactate – 29% faster, and the oxygen utilization rate increased by 15% (p<0.05-0.01). In June no statistically significant correlations were found between the studied indicators. In autumn statistically significant correlations appeared between indicators of the cardiorespiratory system, physical performance, and coordination test time.
    Conclusions. The package program for the summer-autumn training period contributes to the improvement of the functional status of the cross-country skiers and to the development of physical power, endurance, increased strength of the upper limbs, increased speed of movement on roller skis, faster and more complete recovery of physiological and biochemical parameters.
  • Academic and sport achievements of the physical culture and sports university students
    Ihor Zanevskyy | Lviv State University of Physical Culture | http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9326-1167
    Lyudmyla Zanevska | Lviv State University of Physical Culture | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9279-2372
    Early Online 2021-01-27 | pages: 165 - 171 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0304
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. It is widely used a paradigm about the interdependence between the academic and sport achievements of students. The aim of this research was to create a model for studying relationships between academic and sport achievements of the sports and physical culture university students.
    Material and Methods. Totally 259 (168 male and 91 female) bachelor students of 18–23 years old studied Physical Culture and Sports were involved into the investigation. All the students were good healthy, and they participated in the sport training and competitions, according the common program. Interdependence between the semester control scores and scores of the sport achievements were studied in the frames of correlation models of parameter and non-parameter statistics. Distribution of scores was studied using Kolmogorov – Smirnov method. One-way ANOVA for repeated measures was used to determine differences between students’ scores and educational disciplines’ scores.
    Results. Almost non-significant weak interdependence between results of the semester control and sport achievements was noticed (р>0.05, 0.174≤rs≤0.284). There were no statistically significant and tight correlation between semester control scores of educational disciplines and corresponding sport achievements scores (|rs|≤0.376). Contrary, in 73% of educational disciplines pairs the semester control scores showed significant and tight correlation (p<0.001, 0.385≤r≤0.895).
    Conclusions. A well-known paradigm about significant relationship between academic and sport achievements of students was not confirmed with the results of this research and should be studied more profoundly.
  • Playing traditional games vs. free-play during physical education lesson to improve physical activity: a comparison study
    'Arif B. Azlan | National University of Malaysia | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6026-4169
    Nadzirah Ismail | National University of Malaysia | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3019-5120
    Nor Farah Mohamad Fauzi | National University of Malaysia | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0289-5795
    Ruzita Abd. Talib | National University of Malaysia | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3174-7065
    Early Online 2021-03-14 | pages: 178 - 187 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0306
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. Non-sport activities like traditional games can be a practical way to promote physical activity (PA) during physical education (PE) lessons, especially among those who are less inclined towards sports. The purpose of this study is to compare the PA variables and acceptance between playing traditional games and free-play during physical education lessons among secondary school students.
    Material and Methods. Fifty-six (n = 56) subjects participated in this study wore accelerometers for a total of 40 minutes during each PE lesson to record PA. In the first week, a 40-min free-play PE lesson was done while in the second week, a 40-min PE lesson incorporated with traditional games (TG-PE lesson) was done. After following both lessons, subjects filled up a questionnaire on acceptance of TG-PE and free-play PE lessons.
    Results. The mean total activity count (p < 0.05) and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (p < 0.05) were 20% and 19% greater respectively during TG-PE lesson compared to free-play PE lesson. The mean acceptance scores showed students preferred playing TG (19.29 ± 4.21; p < 0.00) over free-play PE lesson (17.59 ± 3.13).
    Conclusions. In conclusion, incorporating fun and meaningful activities such as TG during PE lessons can serve as an alternative strategy to promote PA during school hours. Further studies are warranted to determine other types of TG that may promote PA among secondary school students.