Early Online

The articles shown below have been posted as Early Online Release articles. These articles have been peer reviewed, copyedited, and reviewed by the authors. Additional changes or corrections may appear in these articles when they are published in a future issue of the “Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports". When articles are published in an issue, it will be removed from this page and appear in that issue’s table of contents.


  • Determination of Anaerobic Threshold by a new approach through the incremental exercise using proportion in HR and Ve changes in rowers
    Lachezar G. Stefanov | National Sports Academy | http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5380-3446
    Svilen E. Neykov | National Sports Academy | http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3336-0454
    Early Online 2020-09-01 | pages: 89 - 97 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0203
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. The aim of this research is to create a non-invasive and easy to apply in practice approach to determine the anaerobic threshold based only on measurement of the pulmonary ventilation and the hearth rate. It uses proportions, with which these variables were changed during a maximal incremental test.
    Material and Methods. Twenty athletes from the national rowing team of Bulgaria with average age of 17.5 years were tested. Participants performed a one-time graded incremental exercise test to exhaustion on a rowing ergometer. The proposed new approach for determining the anaerobic threshold is related to detecting the power. Thus, one curve (obtained from differences in percentages of hearth rate and pulmonary ventilation) crosses the other one (obtained from pulmonary ventilation in percentages). The crossing point corresponds to the anaerobic threshold. This approach was compared with two methods determining the lactate threshold, by blood lactate measurement.
    Results. The Shapiro-Wilk test results indicated, that the samples of the heart rate of the compared methods have a normal or close to the normal distribution. The Fisher's F-test demonstrated, that the standard deviations of the samples do not differ significantly two by two at ɑ=0.05. The Bland&Altman test presented, that the 95% of all measurement data points lie within the confidence interval limit for each of the comparisons made between the new approach and two methods.
    Conclusions. Our proposed approach is non-invasive and can be easily applied in the field conditions, without using gas-analysing devices. In addition, it is reliable, reproducible and comparable to the accepted for “Gold Standard” methods for determination of anaerobic threshold with 95% statistical significance.
  • Complex assessment of athletes’ operative status and its correction during competitions, based on the body impedance analysis
    Olena Dorofieieva | O.Bogomolets National Medical University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2028-6064
    Kseniia Yarymbash | O.Bogomolets National Medical University | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4694-291X
    Iryna Skrypchenko | Dnipropetrovs’k State University of Internal Affairs | http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5895-3099
    Marko Joksimović | Football Club Nacional | http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4232-5033
    Aneliia Mytsak | Prydniprovsk State Academy of Physical Culture and Sports | http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7965-8101
    Early Online 2020-08-15 | pages: 66 - 73 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0201
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. The aim of this research was assessment and correction of highly skilled swimmers’ operative status during competitions.
    Material and Methods. The authors carried out complex assessment of 46 high-skilled swimmers during competition period. The body impedance analysis and functional status express diagnosis were conducted before and after competitions.
    Results. The components limiting the operational state of swimmers were determined: “component composition of the body” (44.83% of the total load), “functional” (19.97%).  Correlation relationships were established between the main indicators that determine the level of the operational state of athletes.  The multiple regression equation was calculated, which made it possible to determine the influence of individual significant parameters on the level of the operational state of athletes and the confidence interval.  A group of athletes with operational status indicators below the confidence interval received sport supplementation.
    Conclusion. The main characteristics of the athletes’ operative status are cellular biomarker phase, fat free mass, extracellular water, intracellular water, strength index. These characteristics should be used in assessment of both operative status and complex functional diagnosis of highly-skilled swimmers during competitions.
  • The efficiency of action of futsal goalkeepers in game situations with varying results of competition
    Andrzej Szwarc | Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1959-3902
    Mateusz Oszmaniec | Town Hall of Bytów | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4317-0478
    Early Online 2020-09-01 | pages: 98 - 107 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0204
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. The aim of the study was to expand knowledge of the efficiency of actions from top-level futsal teams. Goalkeepers’ activity, effectiveness and reliability were estimated with a view to implementing the objectives of the game in offence and defence and depending on the changing match status.
    Material and Methods. Data about the game were registered on a self-developed observation sheet. 23 goalkeepers participating in 31 matches of the World and the European Championships and the UEFA Futsal Cup played in the years 2012–2015 were observed.
    Results. It was found that actions to gain the playfield with the ball and to prevent a loss of a goal dominated in futsal goalkeepers’ both when drawing as well as winning and losing game and that game status does not determine the style of play of the goalkeeper. Only in nine of the 60 types of actions examined significant differences in activity were fund.
    Conclusions. The unequivocal claim that the current score during the competition determines the style of the futsal goalkeeper’s game (the frequency of taking actions in the game characteristic of his position), is unauthorized at this stage of research. The obtained significant differences in his activity in nine types of actions constitute only a small percentage (15%) of all his skills in the game.
  • Blood parameters as a measure for controlling physical performance of young Algerian cyclists (U23 category)
    Abdelkader Kharobi Abdelhamid | University of Mostaganem | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2296-6909
    Said Aissa Khelifa | University of Mostaganem | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9541-8175
    Abdelmalek Mohamed | High School of Science and Sport Technology | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2965-8493
    Benglia Abderrezzak | Regional Military University Hospital of Oran (HMRUO) | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2682-8140
    Si Merabet Hadj Sahraoui | University of Mostaganem | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3973-6464
    Early Online 2020-09-04 | pages: 74 - 88 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0202
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. The use of blood parameters in monitoring athletes is an essential but an unstandardized component of managing athletic preparation. This study aims to describe and evaluate typical measurements and responses observed while monitoring elite cyclist during a training camp. The reported observations might contribute in constituting a scientific support for other practitioners to employ.
    Material and Methods. 35 elite cyclists from the Algerian National team aged 16 – 23 years participated in this study. Peripheral fasting blood samples were collected in resting after 24 hrs of physical inactivity and outside competitions. Complete blood count (CBC) and hormonal index values (Cortisol, Testosterone, Probnp and TnT) were tested twice before and after the training camp. The statistical data were analysed by the SPSS software version 22.0.
    Results. The observed rates of change were significant (p<0,01, p<0,05) for most erythrocyte variables, except for leukocyte and platelet distribution levels. Hormonal values recorded for Troponin (↓92,78%, p=0,000) and Cortisol (↓11,85%, p=0,000) remained significantly as an  anticipatory response to competition. The responses of the ProBnp and testosterone were not statistically significant and experienced a different response with regards to their kinetics.
    Conclusion. This study is further support suggesting a viable approach to monitoring physical performance index in elite athletes. The results imply that reducing volume while increasing intensity of training just before competition can enhance performance during short preparation periods.
  • Effects of vertical and horizontal plyometric exercises on explosive capacity and kinetic variables in professional long jump athletes
    Amir Vazini Taher | Education Administration, Physical Education and Sport Sciences | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7780-7054
    Ratko Pavlović | University of East Sarajevo | http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4007-4595
    Shahram Ahanjan | Amirkabir University of Technology | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3047-3266
    Iryna Skrypchenko | Dnipropetrovs’k State University of Internal Affairs | http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5895-3099
    Marko Joksimović | Football Club Nacional | http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4232-5033
    Early Online 2021-04-28 | pages: 108 - 113 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0205
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. Athletic jumps are specific cyclically-acyclic movements that despite the good performance of the techniques require from competitors a high level of motor, specific-motor and functional abilities. The aim of this study was to examine the response effect of vertical and horizontal plyometric training on explosive capacity and kinetic variables in long jump athletes.
    Material and Methods. The participants of this study were twenty professional jumpers (22.5 ± 4.2 years; 178.4 ± 9.8 cm; 70.3 ± 7.6 kg) who were divided into two groups: experimental (plyometric training) and control (standard training). They participated in the last track and field championship in country, moreover, three of them participated in the last Asian games, and one athlete participated in the world track and field championship. The experiments were conducted on June-July 2019 in twenty professional athletes. All tests were performed after a standard warm up protocol. The place of camera was always determined wisely around the jumping field to attain best photography. Organizing and controlling the imaging and motor analysis processes were done by a biomechanics expert.
    Results. Post training results in experimental group showed more improvement in 30 m sprint, vertical jump, horizontal velocity at take-off, and long jump completion, comparing the control group. Significant between group differences in all variables were detected post training. No significant post training improvements in flight time and take off duration were reported in control group.
    Conclusion. Vertical and horizontal plyometric training protocol was shown to be more effective in promoting improvement in explosive capacity than kinetic variables.
  • Parents at the sport competition: How they react, feel and cope with the event
    Rebeka Prosoli | University of Zagreb | http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6571-6200
    Marc Lochbaum | Texas Tech University | http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7640-7075
    Renata Barić | University of Zagreb | http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2614-673X
    Early Online 2020-10-13 | pages: 114 - 124 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0206
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. Researchers rarely focus on documenting parental experiences at sport tournaments. Therefore, our purpose was to document parent cardiovascular, metabolic and emotional responses to watching their child compete while also paying attention to their thoughts before and after the competition, levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and coping strategies.
    Materials and methods. Parents, a mother and a father of same female adolescent, wore a device made by Firstbeat Technologies which continuously monitored their heart rate from Thursday evening to Monday evening. The competition was on Saturday, and it was the taekwondo Croatian National Championships for cadets. Their child had two fights: she won the first one and lost the second one. Parents completed a number of questionnaires and two open-ended questions regarding their expectations and overall experience.
    Results. Before the contest, dad expected his daughter would fight as best she could while giving her best effort. The mother hoped that her daughter would pass the first fight. Parents had a similar pattern of cardiovascular responses to watching their daughter compete but differed in intensity. Emotional profiles of the mother and father changed several times during the measurement period. Overall, parent's experienced low levels of stress, anxiety and depression and used numerous strategies to cope with the event.
    Conclusions. Although our research only included one pair of parents it suggests that parents experiences during the sport events are complex and worth investigating in future research on larger samples.