Early Online

The articles shown below have been posted as Early Online Release articles. These articles have been peer reviewed, copyedited, and reviewed by the authors. Additional changes or corrections may appear in these articles when they are published in a future issue of the “Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports". When articles are published in an issue, it will be removed from this page and appear in that issue’s table of contents.


  • Physiological impact of wearing a surgical face mask during walking in the COVID-19 pandemic
    Mustafa Ş. Akgül | Karabuk University School of Physical Education and Sports | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9696-6541
    Neslihan Ozcan | School of Physical Education and Sports, Karabuk University | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6291-5351
    Mahmut E. Uzun | School of Physical Education and Sports, Karabuk University | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6304-0227
    Veli V. Gurses | School of Physical Education and Sports, Kastamonu University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6249-3504
    Bilgehan Baydil | School of Physical Education and Sports, Kastamonu University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9161-2381
    Early Online 2021-03-14 | pages: 202 - 207 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0401
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. Common use of surgical face masks is recommended for social and individual health due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is no systematic report for responses of organism to wearing a surgical face mask during different exercises. In this context the purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of wearing a surgical face mask during a one-hour brisk walking.
    Material and Methods. A total of thirty male (n=16) and female (n=14) volunteers (mean age and BMI of 32±1.07 years and 25.1±0.68 kg/m2, respectively) completed the protocol. This was a multiple cross-over trial for healthy volunteers. All participants took a one-hour brisk walking with and without a surgical face mask. Specific physiological measurements (HR - heart rate; BP - blood pressure, SaO2 - arterial oxygen content) were compared before and immediately after two brisk walking. Each subject served their own control.
    Results. The evaluation found that there was no statistically significant difference between the mean HR and blood pressure values during the brisk walking with and without a surgical face mask, while there was a statistically significant difference in the SaO2 values on behalf of no-mask-walking (p<0.05).
    Conclusions. The use of surgical face masks in healthy volunteers causes a decrease in SaO2 during brisk walking. However, it does not affect the mean pulse rate and blood pressure. Although there was a statistically significant decrease in the SaO2 parameter during mask-walking, it is possible to state that brisk walking with a surgical face mask does not have a physiologically negative impact, because this decrease is in ranges that are accepted to be normal. 
  • Improvement of coordination abilities of qualified athletes specializing in fencing
    Georgiy Lopatenko | Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University | http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9223-248X
    Valeriy Vynogradov | Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1168-5557
    Lilia Yasko | Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University | http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6649-1899
    Ganna Cherhenko | Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2560-732X
    Early Online 2021-03-14 | pages: 208 - 214 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0402
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. The aim of the research is to investigate the efficiency of designed complexes of training exercises aimed to improve the coordination abilities of qualified athletes in fencing.
    Material and Methods. 22 qualified athletes specializing in fencing aged from 15 to 18 took part in the research. The study design included the sequential pedagogical experiment that was realized through the several stages.  At the first stage, the preliminary testing of the athletes’ coordination abilities (n=22) was conducted. During the preliminary testing the following tests were applied: jumps to the line; shuttle run (4x9 m.); T-test, straight touch from en-garde position to the target of 10 cm in diameter from close range (10 attempts); straight lunge attack from en-garde position to the target of 10 cm (10 attempts). At the second stage of the pedagogical experiment two complexes of exercises aimed at developing the coordination abilities of the athletes were applied for 3 months. The experimental complexes of exercises were used twice a week. At the third stage, the efficiency of experimental complexes aimed at the developing of coordination abilities of qualified athletes in fencing was checked through a control testing. The Statistica 10 software created by the StatSoft Company was used for statistical processing of data.
    Results. It was established that during the process of coordination abilities development, the greatest attention should be given to the athletes’ ability to control timing, spatial and physical parameters of moves and moves consistency. To improve the process of developing the coordination abilities of the qualified athletes in fencing two complexes of training exercises were developed. The results of the pedagogical experiment confirmed the statistical differences in the levels of the athletes’ coordination abilities manifestation before and after using experimental training complexes (p<0.05).
    Conclusions. It has been shown that specially developed training complexes could be used during the training process in order to develop and increase the level of coordination abilities of qualified athletes in fencing. The analysis of experts’ opinion showed that the development of coordination abilities in fencing should be oriented towards the development of athletes’ ability to control timing, spatial and physical parameters of movements.
  • Effect of glutathione supplementation on swimmers’ performance
    Lubomir Petrov | National Sports Academy | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1209-959X
    Albena Alexandrova | National Sports Academy | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7007-3665
    Mihail Kachaunov | National Sports Academy | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6877-6054
    Radoslav Penov | National Sports Academy | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3355-0725
    Tanya Sheytanova | National Sports Academy | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0906-6834
    Stefan Kolimechkov | STK Sport | http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0112-2387
    Early Online 2021-04-08 | pages: 215 - 224 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0403
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. Continuously increasing the volume and intensity of the training sessions often leads to overtraining. It has been demonstrated that glutathione supplementation might improve the aerobic metabolism in skeletal muscle and reduce exercise-induced muscle fatigue. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of glutathione supplementation on fatigue, recovery processes, and competitive results of elite swimmers during a six-week training period.
    Material and Methods. Twenty-four elite swimmers (10 women and 14 men) from the Bulgarian national swimming team, with a mean age of 18.7±3.78 years, took part in this double-blind placebo control study. The swimmers from the experimental group were supplemented once a day with a capsule of 250mg glutathione, whilst the swimmers from the control group took a placebo once a day. The urine concentration levels of cortisol and cortisone, as well as the degree of overtraining, were evaluated on the 1st(T1), 14th(T2), 28th(T3), and 42nd(T4) days. Anthropometric measurements and a nutritional assessment were performed at T1 and T4.
    Results. The swimmers showed a gradual decrease of cortisol and cortisone during the study, with significantly lower concentrations in the experimental vs the control group at T4 (19.4 vs 42.5 ng/mL, p < 0.05). At the end of the study, the swimmers from the experimental group showed improvements in their time in 41 out of the 43 swimming events, whilst those from the control group had significantly smaller improvements (-1.66 vs -0.97%, p < 0.05).
    Conclusions. In conclusion, glutathione supplementation at a dose of 250mg/day for six weeks improves the adaptation of elite swimmers towards training schedules, which is likely to lead to better sports results.
  • The effects of single leg stance during daily toothbrushing on the balance skills of elderly adults
    Ebubekir Aksay | Germany TV Eberbach e.V. | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5706-6698
    Early Online 2021-05-20 | pages: 225 - 233 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0404
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. It was aimed to measure the effects of single-leg stance on measuring the individual postural limits and balance skills of elderly adults.
    Material and Methods. The present study involved a total of 360 elderly adults aged between 70 and 80 years. The participants were divided into two groups as 187 individuals in experiment group (99 women / 88 men) and 173 individuals in control (94 women / 79 men). In measuring the risk of fall and balance skills, the Functional Reach Test, Timed up and go Test, and Single Leg Stance Test were used. The participants in experiment group were asked to stand on one foot for a total of 4 minutes (2 minutes in morning and 2 minutes in evening) every day while brushing their teeth for 50 weeks. Since the data showed normal distribution, the independent samples t-test was used in determining the intergroup difference, whereas the dependent sample t-test was used in determining the intragroup pretest-posttest difference.
    Results. It was determined that there was a significant relationship between elderly adults’ balance skills and 4-min/day single-leg stance practice (p<0.05). In all the tests, it was found that the balance skills of women and men have improved and men had better values in comparison to women.
    Conclusion. It is thought that, via simple procedures such as lifting up one foot while brushing the teeth, the balance skills of elderly adults can be improved, the risk of fall can be reduced. They can be supported in terms of living an independent life.
  • Causal attributions for success and failure among athletes: Validation of the Croatian version of the revised Causal dimension scale (CDS-II)
    Rebeka Prosoli | University of Zagreb | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6571-6200
    Benjamin Banai | Banai Analitika | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2249-5257
    Renata Renata | University of Zagreb | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2614-673X
    Marc Lochbaum | Texas Tech University | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7640-7075
    Sydney Cooper | Texas Tech University | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6610-5444
    Margareta Jelić | University of Zagreb | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2478-0756
    Early Online 2021-05-25 | pages: 244 - 252 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0406
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. Researchers since the late 1970s have been interested in finding out the reasons attributed to outcomes. To facilitate attribution research in Croatia we translated and validated The Revised Causal Dimension Scale (CDS-II) and examined its invariance when attributing most and least successful competition performances.
    Materials and methods. To achieve our stated aim, 384 kinesiology students completed the translated CDS-II. To test the latent structure of the questionnaire, we used CFA and tested two alternative models (orthogonal solution and model with correlated latent variables). Additionally, we examined the CDS-II invariance when attributing the most and the least successful competition performance in sport using longitudinal CFA. The reliability was tested using Cronbach alpha coefficients. Lastly, we tested differences in latent means between most and least successful performance using pairwise t-test.
    Results. Similar to the originally published findings, CFA indicated the CDS-II structure with correlated latent variables had an adequate and better fit than the orthogonal solution in both situations. Furthermore, we confirmed configural, metric and scalar invariance, as well as partial strict invariance since one item’s residuals differed significantly from the others. Cronbach alpha coefficients were adequate across both situations. Lastly, athletes attributed their most successful performances to more internal, stable and controllable reasons than their least successful performances.
    Conclusions. We confirmed that the Croatian version of the CDS-II has adequate psychometric properties and is therefore suitable for research in sport situations.
  • Combined impact method in the preparatory period of the annual macrocycle of female volleyball players aged 18–19 years old
    Roman Boichuk | Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7377-6211
    Sergii Iermakov | Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport | http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5039-4517
    Oleh Vintoniak | Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4940-1238
    Tatiana Yermakova | Kharkiv State Academy of Design and Arts | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3081-0229
    Early Online 2021-06-01 | pages: 234 - 243 | https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0405
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. The work aim is to develop and experimentally test the combined impact method performance in the preparatory period of the annual macrocycle of 18–19 year old volleyball players (girls).
    Material and Methods. The study involved volleyball players (girls) aged 18–19 years old (n = 24, training experience – 9 years). Volleyball players (girls) were divided into control (n = 12) and experimental (n = 12) groups.
    Results. The method contributed to a higher rate of growth of most parameters of special readiness among volleyball players (girls) of the experimental group. A significant improvement in special readiness (p <0.05) was revealed for all parameters in both groups. In the experimental group, an improvement (p <0.001) was observed for 8 out of 11 parameters. In the control group, a significant improvement in the results (p <0.001) occurred in 3 cases out of 11. A significant improvement in speed and strength training parameters (p <0.001) was revealed: in 3 out of 4 cases (experimental group); in 1 out of 4 cases (control group). The quality of performance of the game basic techniques improved by: 4–22% (p <0.04–0.001 in experimental group) 4–11% (p <0.05–0.02 in control group).
    Conclusions. It is advisable to devote more time to the development of more significant motor abilities of volleyball players (girls) (speed, speed and strength, dexterity and coordination). It is advisable to improve endurance in combination with the development of other motor abilities and in the process of technical and tactical improvement. In the physical training of volleyball players (girls), it is advisable to use as many training means as possible, which are similar to the main game techniques according to spatio–temporal and dynamic characteristics. Movements with load contribute to the development of intermuscular coordination and allow to quickly form the correct idea of the trained motor action.