Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Sergii Iermakov Open Journal Systems <table border="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="70%"> <p style="background: #D2E4FA; width: 170px; border-radius: 5px 5px 5px 5px; text-align: center; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; color: #ffffff;"><a href="/index.php/ppcs/user/register" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Make a Submission</strong></a></p> <p>If your manuscript and figures are ready to submit according to the <a href="/index.php/ppcs/pages/about/submissions" target="_blank" rel="noopener">manuscript formatting guidelines and requirements</a>, please proceed directly to the <a href="/index.php/ppcs/user/register" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ONLINE SUBMISSION SYSTEM</a> <br> Article Processing Charges (APC) <a href="/index.php/ppcs/about/submissions#25" target="_blank" rel="noopener">more...</a>. <br> <br> Journal “Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports" (Abbreviated key-title: Pedagogy phys. cult. sports; <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ISSN 2664-9837</a>). <br> <br> Continues <a style="color: #000000;" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <u><em>Pedagogics, Psychology, Medical-Biological Problems of Physical Training and Sports</em></u></a>; <a style="color: #000000;" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <u><em> Pedagogìka, Psihologìâ ta Mediko-bìologìčnì Problemi Fìzičnogo Vihovannâ ì Sportu </em></u> </a><br> <br> Journal is published 6 times per year (bimonthly: February, April, June, August, October, December). <br> <br> All articles have <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOI (digital object identifier)</a><br> <br> All authors have <a href="">ORCID</a><br> <br> Web of Science Core Collection (ESCI), Scopus: <a href="/index.php/ppcs/pages/view/Indexing">See more ►</a><br> <a href=";ISSN=*2664-9837" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/images/esci.jpg" width="50" height="49"></a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/images/citescore2020.png" width="90" height="50"></a> <a title="SCImago Journal &amp; Country Rank" href=";tip=sid&amp;exact=no"><img src="" alt="SCImago Journal &amp; Country Rank" width="50" height="50" border="0"></a></p> </td> <td bgcolor="#D3D3D3" width="1%">&nbsp;</td> <td> <h3>Journal Partnerships</h3> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener">Pedagogy of Health</a>&nbsp;</p> <p align="left"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener">Physical Education of Students</a>&nbsp;(WoS)</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><a href=""><img src="" alt="Flag Counter" border="0"></a></p> <hr noshade="noshade" size="1" width="100%"> A biomechanical analysis of differences between natural and clinical angle degrees and correlations to performance in road cycling 2022-06-14T03:47:14+00:00 Aliye Büyükergün Milaim Berisha <p><em>Background and Study Aim. </em>The study aims to determine differences between natural and clinical angle degrees in hips and shoulders, and determination of the correlations between angle degrees and functional threshold power (FTP) in road cycling athletes.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods. </em>The study includes 11 male road cycling athletes aged 14-16 years old. The volunteer's body weight average was determined as 68.5±14.58, body height average was 175.4±6.98, and body mass index average 21.8±3.87. Volunteers are active athletes in “Büyükçekmece Road Cycling Team”. To measure the performance of the cyclists clinical hip angle, clinical shoulder angle, hip angle degree, shoulder angle, functional threshold power (FTP) tests were used. The Kinovea 0.8.15 program was used in the data analysis of the variables in the study. Analyzes were performed using SPSS 26 analysis program. The analyses of the Shapiro Wilks test resulted in the normal distribution of the variables included in the study.&nbsp; Correlations between FTP test parameters and angle degrees, the correlation of a continued variable were calculated with Pearson correlation.</p> <p><em>Results. </em>A statistically significant correlation between functional threshold power parameters such as distance, power avarege, total energy, cadance avarege, speed avarege, functional threshold power, and hip angle degree parameter (p&lt;0.05). Similarly, correlations between functional threshold power, parameters such as power avarege and back curve resulted to be statistically significant (p&lt;0.05). Also, like an functional threshold power parameter, speed avarege resulted to be in a significant correlation with the clinical shoulders angle degree.</p> <p><em>Conclusions. </em>Based on these results, increases in the FTP parameters may affect positively the cyclist’s performance helping to avoid undesirable hip angles, which may lead to back pain. Similarly, power average and back curve degree resulted to be in a correlation. Therefore, the back curve degree may be increased or decreased by the changes in the power average parameter.&nbsp; In addition, during the high intensity of training and fatigue levels increased, the clinical hip and shoulder angles were also increased.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physical education teaching in Italian primary school: theoretical lines and operational proposals 2022-06-14T03:47:15+00:00 Gaetano Altavilla Rosario Ceruso Giovanni Esposito Gaetano Raiola Francesca D'Elia <p><em>Background and Study aim</em>.&nbsp; For the new reform to be applied in the best possible way, it is a priority and useful to promote the development of knowledge on the organization and methods of teaching/learning in physical education in primary school. This study aims to search for a new didactic organizational model for physical education in primary school, starting from the theoretical lines, showing the contrasts of the significant aspects and the uniqueness of heuristic learning, with a consequent theoretical and argumentative elaboration of operational proposals.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods.</em> For this purpose, an accurate survey of the scientific literature has been analyzed, highlighting the critical issues that characterized the various proposals and attempt to implement physical activity and sports education courses in primary school over the years, up to the recent legislative innovation.</p> <p><em>Results.</em> The path of the definition of physical education in primary school was marked by stages that did not always enhance the educational and training dimension of the motor and sports experience, making the school discipline assume a marginal and optional role in the face of an extracurricular practice characterized by a widespread organization and more capable of intercepting and responding to the physical exercise and sport needs of society. This complex situation has only generated confusion without solving the problem of the absence of physical and sporting activity in the 5-10 age group, as required by the World Health Organization and the European Union, by adequately and uniquely qualified teachers. It is now useful to promote the development of knowledge on the didactic organization of the primary school, on the different teaching/learning methods in physical education, to contextualize the scope of the new legal provision to the current legal framework</p> <p><em>Conclusions.</em> The study highlights the value of a new approach in teacher training that aims to ensure the acquisition of key competence, according to the Recommendation of the European Parliament. This perspective can be easily realized by using a core curriculum uniformly applied at the national level.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The effects of knee flexion on muscle activation and performance during chin-up exercise 2022-06-14T03:47:16+00:00 Abdul Muiz Nor Azmi Mohd Syamil Shafiee Nor Fazila Abd Malek Kevin Tan Rajkumar Krishnan Vasanthi Zulezwan Ab Malik Ali Md Nadzalan <p><em>Background and Study Aim</em>. Chin-up is an exercise that is done to improve the strength, muscular endurance and size of the upper back and arm muscles. There are many ways to perform chin-up exercises including by performing it with different forms of knee flexion. This study aims to examine the effects of knee flexion on muscle activation and performance during chin-up exercise.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods<strong>.</strong> </em>A total of twenty-one healthy trained male (age 20-25 years old) were recruited and were instructed to perform chin-up exercises in three knee conditions: i) knee fully flexed, ii) partial knee flexed, and iii) straight knee. Chin-up performance was measured by the number of repetitions performed in three sets. Muscle activation was measured using EMG and taken from latissimus dorsi (LD), posterior deltoid (PD), and biceps brachii (BB) during both concentric and eccentric phase. One-way repeated measure Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) were conducted to compare the muscle activation and number of repetitions performed across the three variation of chin-up exercise.</p> <p><em>Results.</em> Findings showed that during the concentric phase, BB recorded higher muscle activation during straight knee compared to knee fully flexed and partial knee flexed, p &lt; .05. In addition, chin-up performance during straight knee and partial knee flexed were better than knee fully flexed, p &lt; .05.</p> <p><em>Conclusions. </em>The results of this study demonstrated the importance to consider techniques manipulation during exercises due to its effects on acute responses as shown by number of repetitions and muscle activation in this study that might also affect the long-term outcomes.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The negative effects of the pandemic on human behavior; alienation and social anhedonia: the example of sport sciences students 2022-06-14T03:47:16+00:00 Mehmet H. Akgül Nedim Tekin <p><em>Background and Study Aim. The social change brought about by the pandemic process all over the world has led to the restructuring of human behavior and daily life practices. This process has brought with it some social-psychological problems (such as alienation and social anhedonia) for social segments.</em> For this reason, the aim of the research is to examine the alienation and social anhedonia levels of the students studying at the faculty of sport sciences during the pandemic process.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods. The sample of the research consists of students studying at the faculties of sport sciences of different universities in Turkey. A total of 423 students (271 males, 152 females) participated in the study.</em> Due to the normal distribution of the data, the t-test, one of the parametric tests, was performed for paired groups, and the relationship between Social Anhedonia Scale and Alienation Scale sub-dimensions was tested with Pearson correlation analysis. Statistical analyzes were performed with the “Statistical Package for the Social Sciences” commercial software (SPSS for Windows, version 26.0, SPSS). The significance level was determined as p&lt;0.05 in the analyzes, and skewness and kurtosis values were considered for the normality analysis.</p> <p><em>Results.</em> According to the results obtained, it can be said that the pandemic process negatively affected the social anhedonia and alienation levels of male students studying at the faculty of sport sciences compared to female students. Again, it is seen that the level of alienation of the students who do sports at the professional level is higher than the students who do sports at the amateur level. Similarly, it is seen that the students of the faculty of sport sciences dealing with team sports have higher levels of social isolation, which is one of the sub-dimensions of the alienation scale, compared to the students who are engaged in individual sports. Finally, there is a negative and low-level significant relationship between social anhedonia and alienation scale sub-dimensions (p&lt;0.05; r=-0.187; r=-0.164; r=-132).</p> <p><em>Conclusions.</em> As a result, it can be said that the pandemic process has had similar negative effects on the students studying in the faculties of sport sciences, as in other social segments.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development of balance training program to improve balance control among Malaysian sports schools athletes 2022-06-14T03:47:16+00:00 Ai Choo Lee Mohansundar Sankaravel Fariba Hossein Abadi Fairus Fariza Zainudin <p><em>Background and Study Aim. </em>Complex sports specific movements often require balance ability. This is accountable for injury prevention as well. Balance control is vital to athletes for all sports activities. It is the objective of the current study to develop and identify balance training program effectiveness in improving dynamic balance among athletes in Malaysian National Sport Schools.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods. </em>This study used a true experimental with control group design, involved dynamic balance control measures before and after intervention. A total of 72 male and female athletes were randomly assigned into experimental group or control group after screening process for eligibility. The experimental group underwent 12 sessions of balance training program and the control group continued their usual training routine. The Y-Balance Test was utilized to quantify dynamic balance for both groups. Data was analyzed using independent and paired sample t-test.</p> <p><em>Results.</em> The study finding indicated that the experimental group demonstrated significant improvement in the post-test compared to pre-test (p = 0.000, p &lt; 0.001) but no significant changes happened to control group (p = 0.353, p &gt; 0.05). Independent t-test showed during post-test, the experimental group attained better score compared to the control group (p = 0.000, p &lt; 0.001).</p> <p><em>Conclusions.</em> It is suggested that coaches and athletes may include this balance training program in their training regimen, hoping to help in improving dynamic balance, thus, to reduce risk of lower extremity injuries. Future studies are suggested to increase more variances of balance training and make comparison on their effectiveness as a way to obtain a more effective training program.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The effect of the 12-week judo physical activity program on the self-esteem of secondary school students during the COVID-19 period 2022-06-14T03:47:17+00:00 Engin Efek Hakan Eryiğit <p><em>Background and Study Aim.</em> During the COVID-19 period, participation in physical activity decreased, and at the same time, many psychological problems occurred in children and adolescents. Therefore, this study examines the impact of secondary school students’ participation in regular exercise on their self-esteem.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods</em>. The research was carried out with an experimental method and sequential design. The study, carried out in 2 sessions, started with the first measurement in November 2021 and ended with the last measurement in January 2022. 46 volunteer students forming the study sample were divided into experimental and control groups. Students in both groups completed the ‘<em>Personal Information Form’</em> and the ‘<em>Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory</em>’ in the first week and the end of the 12th week. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 17.0 was used for data analysis. First, a descriptive statistical test was conducted to indicate the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Then, normality tests (Skewness and Kurtosis) were applied to determine whether the data showed normal distribution, and it was determined that the data showed normal distribution. Finally, the independent sample t-test and Paired Samples t-test were applied because the data met the assumption of normal distribution. The significance level was determined as p&lt;0.05.</p> <p><em>Results.</em>&nbsp;A statistically significant difference was found between the self-esteem values of the experimental group before the physical activity program and after the exercise sessions. There was no significant difference in the self-esteem levels of the control group pre-test and post-test.</p> <p><em>Conclusions. </em>In conclusion, this study reveals that participation in 12 weeks of regular exercise significantly increases middle school students’ self-esteem.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development, validation, and reliability of athletes’ resilience index 2022-06-14T03:47:17+00:00 Nur Haziyanti M. Khalid Nelfianty M. Rasyid Yusop Ahmad <p><em>Background and Study Aim. </em>The ability to turn back from stressful experiences quickly and efficiently is essential for any athlete who performs in high-level competition. Measuring the degree to which athletes deal with adversity, setbacks, and failure has become the area of concern in the field of resilience. The main aim of the study was to develop, validate and test the reliability of a new index of measurement that can evaluate the level of athletes’ resilience.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods. </em>The first phase of the study is developing 37 items of the Athletes Resilience Index (ARI-37) based on previous qualitative data. Meanwhile, in the second phase, the study focused on establishing the Confirmatory Factor Analysis, convergent validity, and construct reliability of the index. The sample consisted of 351 Performance Development athletes who represent the state of Perak, Malaysia in the Malaysian Games (SUKMA) 2022.</p> <p><em>Results. </em>Confirmatory Factor Analysis retained five risk issues in sports setting including performance, change, behavioral, psychological, and interpersonal. However, instead of 37 items, the Confirmatory Factor Analysis confirmed 26 items only. Most of the factors in ARI-26 yielded a high coefficient value of convergent validity (&gt;0.5). Construct reliability of the index was also sufficient (0.44 to 0.62).</p> <p><em>Conclusions. </em>The development of ARI-26 will allow researchers to better capture the unique aspects of resilience in the sports context. Thus, the Athletes’ Resilience Index (ARI-26) is revealed to be a reliable instrument for the assessment of resilience levels in high-level athletes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Anulom Vilom Pranayama and Rope Mallakhamb Training on respiratory parameters in young females with athletic backgrounds 2022-06-14T03:47:17+00:00 Julien S. Baker Baljinder S. Bal Rashmi Supriya Parmjit Kaur Maman Paul <p><em>Background and Study Aim. </em>To assess the effects of Anulom Vilom Pranayama (AVP) or alternative nostril breathing and Rope Mallakhamb Training (RMT) on respiratory parameters among university females with athletic backgrounds.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods. </em>A quasi experimental study was performed on thirty-six, university female students from the Department of Physical Education (T), Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India. The subjects were divided in three groups. The groups were subjected to 4-weeks of intervention including: Group A (n<sub>1</sub>=12) subjected to AVP, Group B (n<sub>2</sub>=12) subjected to RMT, and Group C: (n<sub>3</sub>=12) no training or control. Respiratory parameters were measured twice, pre and post intervention using a wet spirometer. All measurements were performed three times and the average values were recorded for analysis.</p> <p><em>Results. </em>4-weeks of AVP resulted in positive increases for respiratory parameters measured including Tidal Volume (VT) 25.7%, Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) 29.4%, Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) 27.1%, Vital Capacity (VC) 33.2%, and Inspiratory Capacity (IC) 31.6% compared to the control group. Also, 4-weeks of RMT had a positive impact on respiratory parameters including (VT) 19.8%, (IRV) 22%, (ERV) 19.4%, (VC) 32 % and (IC) 28.1% compared to the control group.</p> <p><em>Conclusions.</em> Both AVP and RMT had a positive impact on respiratory parameters. Also, AVP training has a more positive impact on respiratory parameters than RMT and may also contribute to the enhancement of concentration-based performance and voluntary control of breathing among young females from athletic backgrounds. As a result, AVP training can be more beneficial for a competitive edge in order to improve the athletes' primary need for respiratory endurance.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physical culture in the context of modern philosophical anthropology 2022-06-14T03:47:17+00:00 Bogdan Mytskan Tetiana Mytskan Sergii Iermakov Tetiana Yermakova <p><em>Background and study aim. </em>Prerequisites and purpose of the study. Today, philosophical anthropology (in the context of physical culture) occupies an intermediate place between the biological sciences and existential philosophy, elements of which it uses to explain the problems of physical existence. In the deep spheres of the physical state of a man (in the continuum of his/her spiritual-moral, physical, subconscious-rational, irrational and anthrobiological subjectivity) one can find the true foundations of personal physical culture and give them an immanent-subjective expression of human strength (as a creator of culture globalized world). <em>The purpose of the study</em> is to characterize the physical culture of the individual in the context of philosophical anthropology.</p> <p><em>Material and methods.</em> Sources of information were the authoritative database Web of Science Core Collection, Vernadskyi National Library of Ukraine. Extraction of data from documents was carried out by means of a search query. In total, data on 102 documents containing such keywords as philosophy, anthropology, physical culture, sport were removed from the Web of Science Core Collection. Accordingly, 18 documents were found in the catalogues of the Vernadskyi National Library of Ukraine. Further analysis was performed with these 120 documents. The results of the search query were recorded in the form of tables and a special text file, which was processed in VOSviewer. The requirements of dialectical logic, comparative method, method of phenomenological reduction, hermeneutic methods are chosen by research methods.</p> <p><em>Results.</em> The most significant and popular thematic categories, journals, authors, articles, keywords are identified. The connection between the elements of bibliographic description of articles and individual groups of publications has been established. It is established that from the second quarter of the XX century among philosophers there is opposition to the understanding of human nature on the basis of the acceptance of some one of its essence (spiritual, physical, intellectual, emotional and volitional, etc.), which determines the existence of any person. This was a denial of the approach to a man, which was called essential (from the Latin essentia – essence). The result of this transformation was to establish an existential understanding of a man (from the Latin existentia - existence). However, a self-contained existential approach is capable of producing a worldview distortion of personal physical culture, especially in conditions of restriction of freedom (for example, during a pandemic, war). Therefore, in modern philosophical anthropology it is necessary to adhere to a balanced combination of essential and existential understanding of a man in general and his/her physical culture in particular. In this way, philosophical anthropology is able to actualize various structures of worldview, including the values of physical culture.</p> <p><em>Conclusions.</em> From the point of view of modern philosophical anthropology, athletes, in the broadest sense of the term (all those who purposefully engage in physical and sports exercises), are carriers of a set of socio-cultural values (moral and volitional qualities, morpho-functional properties, psychophysical abilities, etc.). These values, in the context of the globalization of civilizational development and the main axiological concepts (quality and standard of living, social order, well-being), should be considered as a means of activating planetary socio-cultural development.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##