Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports <p style="background: #D2E4FA; width: 170px; border-radius: 5px 5px 5px 5px; text-align: center; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; color: #ffffff;"><a href="/index.php/ppcs/user/register" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Make a Submission</strong></a></p> <p>If your manuscript and figures are ready to submit according to the <a href="/index.php/ppcs/pages/view/trebovaniya-e" target="_blank" rel="noopener">manuscript formatting guidelines and requirements</a>, please proceed directly to the <a href="/index.php/ppcs/user/register" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ONLINE SUBMISSION SYSTEM</a> (manuscript processing <a href="/index.php/ppcs/pages/view/trebovaniya-e#25" target="_blank" rel="noopener">fees</a>). <br> <br> <strong>In 2020 the title is changed to “Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports"</strong> (Abbreviated key-title: Pedagogy phys. cult. sports; <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ISSN 2664-9837</a>). The previous title <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">"Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports" </a>(e-ISSN 2308-7269). <br> <br> Journal is published 6 times per year (bimonthly: February, April, June, August, October, December). <br> <br> All articles have <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOI (digital object identifier)</a><br> <br> All authors have <a href="">ORCID</a><br> <br> INDEXING: <a href="/index.php/ppcs/pages/view/Indexing">See more ►</a></p> <p><br> <a href=""><img src="" alt="Flag Counter" border="0"></a></p> <hr noshade="noshade" size="1" width="700"> <p>&nbsp;</p> Iermakov Sergii Sidorovich (Ukraine) en-US Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports 2664-9837 <p>Copyright Holder - Author(s). <a href="/index.php/ppcs/about#10"> more</a></p> Timeless evolution of walking and pace strategy of women’s race walking <p><em>Background and Study Aim</em><em>. </em>The purpose of this research was to study the timeline evolution of walking, as well as the Pacing Strategy Profiles of high-level women in the 20 km of race walking. <em><u>Material:</u></em> The practical example of applying the theoretical basis was made during the Women’s Greek Championship (Megara 2016), in which 12 athletes aged 19 to 40 participated (28.50 ± 7.20).</p> <p><em>Material and Methods</em><em>. </em>The certified distance of the 20km route was divided into 10 sections of 2 km each. The same happened with the times (intermediate, final) corresponding to the individual sections (2 km) of the route. The athletes were divided into 4 groups: the first 3, those who finished 15% slower than the first, those who finished 15% - 30% slower, and those who finished more than 30% slower than the winner. Finally became comparison of the first 6 and last 6 athletes’ groups.</p> <p><em>Results. </em>The individual pace strategies that describe the tactics of the athletes in this race have been calculated. It was found that the winners of the race used Even Pacing Strategy, maintaining a steady speed on most of the route. As the level of women athletes became lower, Variable Pacing Strategy was used, while the athletes who finished last did not seem to be able to maintain any particular pacing strategy.</p> <p><em>Conclusions. </em>It is suggested that athletes should follow Even Pacing Strategy during the race in order to improve their performance.</p> Panagiotα Fitili Vasilios Giovanis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 24 6 278 284 10.15561/26649837.2020.0601 The relationships between dynamic balance and sprint, flexibility, strength, jump in junior soccer players <p><em>Background and Study Aim. </em>The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between sprint, flexibility, upper extremity strength and Star Excursion Balance Test performances in soccer players aged 12–14 years.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods. </em><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Eighteen junior soccer players (mean age, 9.78 ± 1.6 years; height, 139.5 ± 11.0 cm; weight, 34.3 ± 9.9 kg; BMI, 17.3±2.9; leg length; 63.7±5.9 cm) participated in this study voluntarily. They were training 2 or 3 times a week with the addition of one match per month and none of them had reported injuries or diseases related to sports.&nbsp; After measuring the anthropometrics of the subjects, they were familiarized with the test procedures. Measurements included handgrip strength (HD), 30 sc. sit-ups (SU), standing long jump (SLJ), Countermovement jump (CMJ) and 20m-Sprint tests as independent variables, and Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) as dependent variables. Then, statistical analysis was applied to the data transferred to SPSS 24.0 Packet program.</p> <p><em>Results. </em><strong>&nbsp;</strong>The inconsistent correlations between variables of SEBT and selected parameters were found. The strongest significant relationships of the variables of SEBT with selected variables were observed between anterolateral (AL) and SU (<em>r</em>=646, p&lt;0.05), and between posteromedial (PM) and Sprint (<em>r</em>=-650). No significant correlations were observed between variables of dynamic balance and CMJ, SLJ, Relative Handgrip Strength (RHS).</p> <p><em>Conclusions. </em><strong>&nbsp;</strong>As a result, strength and power performances may not necessarily be related to impaired balance directly in young soccer men. Moreover, low back flexibility may have negative or positive influences on dynamic balance.</p> Alpaslan Kartal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 24 6 285 289 10.15561/26649837.2020.0602 Correlation of maximum oxygen consumption with component composition of the body, body mass of men with different somatotypes aged 25-35 <p><em>Background and Study Aim: </em>The somatotype determines not only physical development, but also the functional capabilities of the organism. Investigation of the correlation relations between the component of body and VO<sub>2 max</sub> will reveal the influence of each of the components on the aerobic capacity of men in the first period of mature age. The aim of the work – to detect the peculiarities of manifestation of maximum oxygen consumption of men with different somatotypes and to investigate the relationship with the component composition of the body.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods:</em> The study involved 150 men aged 25-35 years. The somatotype was determined by the Heath-Carter method. The component composition of the body was determined by the bioelectrical impedance method. The VO<sub>2 max</sub> indicator was determined, metered loads were performed on a bicycle ergometer. A correlation analysis of the absolute and relative VO<sub>2 max</sub> values with the fat and muscle components of the body was performed.</p> <p><em>Results. </em>A high degree of inverse correlation between the relative VO<sub>2 max</sub> indicator with body mass in men of mesomorphic somatotype was established and a high degree of inverse correlation between the relative VO<sub>2 max</sub> indicator with body mass and BMI in men of endomorphic-mesomorphic somatotype.</p> <p><em>Conclusions: </em>For representatives of the mesomorphic and endomorphic-mesomorphic somatotype, a larger body mass and a high degree of correlation between body mass and relative VO<sub>2 max</sub> indicator are characteristic. For representatives of the ectomorphic and balanced somatotype, a smaller body mass and a lower degree of correlation between body mass and relative VO<sub>2 max</sub> indicator max are characteristic.</p> Viacheslav M. Miroshnichenko Yuriy M. Furman Oleksandra Yu. Brezdeniuk Victoria E. Onyshchuk Natalia V. Gavrylova Svitlana V. Salnykova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 24 6 290 296 10.15561/26649837.2020.0603 Moderate movement variability is optimal in massive practiced dart throws <p><em>Background and Study Aim</em>. Movement variability is one of the fundamental topics concerning the control of human movement. In recent years, researches have focused on various aspects of variability, which has changed the noise to useful variable on human movement. Present study investigated movement variability level in high skilled dart players that repeated throws over many years.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods. </em>&nbsp;Seven experienced dart players (three women and four men) were threw 36 darts in three sets (each set 12 throws) from a standard distance (2.37 meters), while the kinematic features of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist were recorded during the throws. Qualisys motion capture system with six cameras was used to record the kinematics of the elbow.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> entropy analysis revealed that greater variability in movement angle, velocity and acceleration resulted in better dart throwing performance but after reach to this level, throw variability was decreased. The remarkable point in these findings was that variability was constant across all samples despite the varied range of experience in throwing darts from 2.37 meters distance. Entropy analysis showed that in the throws of highly experienced individuals, variation led to greater throwing efficiency.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> these findings suggest that variability in a throwing activity, which revealed that moderate movement variability results in optimal throwing performance when dart throw has massive amount of practice during many years.</p> Mahdi Nabavinik Hamideh Abdolzadeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 24 6 297 302 10.15561/26649837.2020.0604 The effect of pre-season football training on hematological parameters of well-trained young male football players <p><em>Background and Study Aim.</em> The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of metabolic stress created by 6-week football training applied in the pre-season period on circulation and hematological parameters of well-trained male football players.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;Material and Methods.</em> Fourteen male football players who competed in the U19 category of a football team in Turkish Football Super League participated in the study voluntarily. In the study, players’ systolic - diastolic blood pressures and resting heart rates were measured and their blood samples were taken before and after the 6-week training period. Laboratory analysis was made to determine counts and concentration percentage of erythrocyte, leukocyte, and platelet sub-parameters. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test was performed to determine the difference between pre and post measurements.</p> <p><em>Results</em><strong>.</strong> Our findings indicated that baseline mean values of lymphocyte, mean cell hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were significantly higher than posttest mean values. The mean of diastolic blood pressure and resting heart rate measured before the preseason training camp were lower than their posttest mean values (p &gt; .05).</p> <p><em>Conclusion.</em> It is thought that the decrease in the mean values of diastolic blood pressure and resting heart rate caused by the effect of regular training during the preseason training period, while the increase in the mean values of mean cell haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration caused by the increased oxygen demand of the metabolism during the training period.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Gökmen Özen Özdermir Atar Hüseyin Ö. Yurdakul Bayram Pehlivan Hürmüz Koç ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 24 6 303 309 10.15561/26649837.2020.0605 Complex control of coordination and speed-power abilities in fire-applied sports <p><em>Background and Study Aim.</em> To identify informative tests for complex control of coordination and speed-power abilities in fire-applied sports.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods.</em> 38 experienced firefighter-athletes aged 15-17, who have been doing this sport for 5-6 years, took part in the research. The survey of Russian leading coaches allowed us to make up a bank of 20 tests. The Brave-Pearson correlation coefficient was used in the statistical processing of the results. The research results were processed using the Excel program.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>Methods of controlling coordination and speed-power abilities with competitive result when overcoming a 100-meter obstacle course in fire-applied sports were experimentally substantiated. In accordance with the basic metrological requirements, close correlation relationship was found for 10 tests.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>Fire-applied sports is a complex technical type, to control the development of coordination and speed-power abilities it is necessary to rely not on one test, but on a bank of them. The identified informative tests can be recommended for complex monitoring of coordination and speed-power preparedness in fire-applied sports.</p> Georgiy G. Polevoy Irina V. Strelnikowa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 24 6 310 315 10.15561/26649837.2020.0606 The effects of theraband training on respiratory parameters, upper extremity muscle strength and swimming performance <p><em>Background and Study Aim.</em> The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 weeks theraband training on respiratory parameters, upper extremity muscle strength and 50-100m swimming performance in swimming athletes.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods. </em>Totally 12 male swimmers participated voluntarily and were divided into two groups as control group (n=6) and experimental group (n=6). Control group did only swimming training, experimental group did theraband exercises in addition to swimming exercises. Respiratory parameters, upper extremity anaerobic performance, shoulder extension/flexion strength and swimming performance were measured. Mann Whitney-U Test was used to determine the differences between two groups. Wilcoxon Test was used to determine intra-group differences.</p> <p><em>Results. </em>There was no statistically significant difference between the pre and post-test values of respiratory parameters, anaerobic performance values and swimming measurements of the experimental groups (p&gt;0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between shoulder extension and flexion values (p&lt;0.05). As for the statistical results between the pre and post-test values of the control group, no significant difference was found in any of the variables (p&gt;0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between the post-test values ​​of the experimental and control groups shoulder extension and flexion values (p&lt;0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between respiratory function parameters, anaerobic performance values and 50-100m swimming degrees (p&gt;0.05).</p> <p><em>Conclusions.</em> As a result of the findings, it can be said that theraband training which is done as a land work with swimming training leads to positive effects in the upper extremity muscle strength and swimming performance development of youth swimmers.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ayşegül Yapıcı-Öksüzoğlu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 24 6 316 322 10.15561/26649837.2020.0607 The state of preparedness of prospective physical education and sports teachers <p><em>Background and Study Aim.</em> This study was conducted to determine the state of readiness of prospective physical education and sports teachers, who were studying in sports education institutions in Turkey.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods.</em> The sample of the study consisted of 552 prospective physical education and sports teachers, who were chosen by the random sampling method. To collect the data from the sample group, the “Preparedness for Teach Scale”, which consisted of 20 items and 4 subscales.&nbsp;The collected data were analysed for normality by using SPSS 22.0 package software. Because the data demonstrated a normal distribution, the “Independent Samples t-tests” and “One-way ANOVA tests” were conducted. To determine the level of relationship between dependent variables, “Pearson Correlation Analysis” was conducted.</p> <p><em>Results.</em> In the gender variable of the sample group, statistically significant differences were observed in the subscales of “Designing the instructional process” and “Understanding the learner”. In the grade variable, significant differences were determined in the subscales of “Forming and effective learning atmosphere”, “Designing the instructional process” and “Techno-pedagogical competence”. In the variable of the department of education, significant differences were determined in all the subscales. Because of the correlation analysis, it was observed that there were positive and strong correlations between the subscales of “Forming an effective learning atmosphere” and “Designing the instructional process” (r= 0.807; p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><em>Conclusions. </em>For teachers to become more confident in themselves and develop their competencies more positively, it will be beneficial to enlarge professional standards and teaching framework. Within this scope, considering the results obtained from the study, it will be beneficial to create positive classroom environments and to ensure that prospective teachers benefit from teachers’ experiences to improve their preparedness to professional life. The study indicated that the competencies of prospective teachers towards the profession of teaching were generally positive. It was observed that several factors affected prospective physical education and sports teachers in their preparedness for teaching. Thus, it is important to ensure that prospective physical education and sports teachers gain acquisitions for their general competencies in the profession of teaching before they complete their undergraduate education.</p> Metin Yılmaz Yunus E. Karakaya Yüksel Savucu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 24 6 323 330 10.15561/26649837.2020.0608