Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports <p style="background: #D2E4FA; width: 170px; border-radius: 5px 5px 5px 5px; text-align: center; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; color: #ffffff;"><a href="/index.php/ppcs/user/register" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Make a Submission</strong></a></p> <p>If your manuscript and figures are ready to submit according to the <a href="/index.php/ppcs/pages/view/trebovaniya-e" target="_blank" rel="noopener">manuscript formatting guidelines and requirements</a>, please proceed directly to the <a href="/index.php/ppcs/user/register" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ONLINE SUBMISSION SYSTEM</a> (manuscript processing <a href="/index.php/ppcs/pages/view/trebovaniya-e#25" target="_blank" rel="noopener">fees</a>). <br> <br> <strong>Journal “Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports"</strong> (Abbreviated key-title: Pedagogy phys. cult. sports; <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ISSN 2664-9837</a>). The previous title <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">"Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports" </a>(e-ISSN 2308-7269). <br> <br> Journal is published 6 times per year (bimonthly: February, April, June, August, October, December). <br> <br> All articles have <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOI (digital object identifier)</a><br> <br> All authors have <a href="">ORCID</a><br> <br> INDEXING: <a href="/index.php/ppcs/pages/view/Indexing">See more ►</a></p> <p><br> <a href=""><img src="" alt="Flag Counter" border="0"></a></p> <hr noshade="noshade" size="1" width="700"> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US <p>Copyright Holder - Author(s). <a href="/index.php/ppcs/about#10"> more</a></p> (Sergii Iermakov) (Sergii Iermakov) Thu, 25 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 The effects of six-week slow, controlled breathing exercises on heart rate variability in physically active, healthy individuals <p><em>Background and Study Aim:</em> Heart rate variability (HRV) provides information about sympathetic-parasympathetic balance. The effects of different types of physical exercises on HRV have been investigated so far. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the chronic effects of six-week slow and controlled breathing exercise on HRV in physically active, healthy adults.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods:</em> A total of 22 individuals (11 female, 11 male) participated in the study voluntarily. The experimental group (EG) attended to the breathing exercises for 15 minutes per day, three days a week for six weeks. Neither the EG nor the control group (CG) did join in any regular physical activity program during the study. Both groups participated in the HRV measurements before and after the six-week of process.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Only the EG showed statistically significant changes in some HRV parameters. The alterations observed in LF:HF ratio, HFnu, and LFnu parameters were to reflect the increase in parasympathetic activity. Although the changes in the other parameters of HRV such as SDNN, SDSD, RMSSD, TP, HF, LF, and VLF were also related to increased vagal activity, these alterations were not significant. However, no significant change was found in the CG.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> These results show that only the slow, controlled breathing exercises for six weeks could be used to improve parasympathetic activity in physically active individuals. A study could be designed where the duration is kept over 8 weeks, and the effects of physical exercises only, breathing exercises only, and physical + breathing exercises together on HRV are examined.</p> Cihan Erdem Sürücü, Sarp Güner, Caner Cüce, Dicle Aras, Fırat Akça, Erşan Arslan, Abdulkadir Birol, Alkan Uğurlu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 25 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The relationship between sprint performance and both lower and upper extremity explosive strength in young soccer players <p><em>Background and Study Aim.</em> Sprint performance plays a major role in success of field-based team sports such as soccer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sprinting performance and both lower and upper extremity explosive strength in young soccer players.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods.</em> One hundred forty-seven soccer players (mean±SD; age 11.6±1.66 years, height 143.2±11.8 cm, body mass 37.1±10.2 kg and training experience 1.11±1.5 years) voluntarily participated in this study. The sprinting performance of each player was determined using their 5, 10, 20 and 30m single sprint times. The lower and upper extremity explosive strength were evaluated by standing long jump and medicine ball throwing tests respectively. Prior to the study, each of the players was given detailed information about the risks and injuries they could encounter during the study, and parental consent was obtained by their signatures on informed voluntary consent forms since the subjects were under the age of 18. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from Ankara University Medical Faculty’s Surgical and Medical Research Ethics Committee.</p> <p><em>Results. </em>The results indicated a strong relationship between sprinting performance and horizontal jump performance (r=-.671 ̶ -.764; p=0.001) and also a large relationship between sprinting performance and upper extremity strength (r=-.633 &nbsp;̶ &nbsp;-.703; p=0.001). The sprint performance (n=147) also significantly correlated with body weight (r=-.345&nbsp; ̶&nbsp; -.373; p=0.001) and height (r=-.445&nbsp; ̶&nbsp; -.505; p=0.001).</p> <p><em>Conclusions.</em> The study results suggest that upper extremity strength is as important as the lower extremity strength for sprinting performance and that trainers should emphasize lower and upper extremity strength in training intended to improve sprinting performance.</p> Gürken Diker, Sürhat Müniroğlu, Sadi Ön, Hüseyin Özkamçı, Abdulkerim Darendeli ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 25 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of the “Chalk” on perceived visual quality and the willingness to climb: a research on sports climbing <p><em>Background and Study Aim:&nbsp;</em>Rock climbing is a popular outdoor recreation and tourism activity practiced in natural areas. Rock climbing, like all of the other outdoor activities, has a variety of impacts on nature and visitors. Understanding these impacts is important for ensuring the sustainability of natural environments and activities practiced in these areas. The goal of this study was to analyze the impacts of chalk density on the rock surface, on the perceived visual quality and the willingness of participants to climb.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods:</em>&nbsp;The visual research method was used in the study to analyze the perceived visual quality of climbers. Photographing technique, one of the visual research methods, was utilized in the study to determine the perceived visual quality of climbers. Eleven photographs, prepared for this purpose, were presented to 213 voluntary participants and the obtained results were evaluated.</p> <p><em>Results:&nbsp;</em>Repeated measures analysis of variance test results indicate that the chalk level increase specifically designed and presented in the photographs statistically changed the perceived visual quality of participants. Impacts of the variables of gender, climbing experience, climbing level and chalk density level on perceived visual quality are compared with the ANOVA test. The results indicate that within-group variance in terms of the climbing level is statistically significant.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:&nbsp;</em>According to the results of the study, the increase in chalk use density on rock surfaces has a negative impact on the perceived visual quality and willingness of participants to climb.</p> Güney Çetinkaya, Abdullah Güngör, Dicle Aras ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 25 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Time-Motion analysis of the 2017 Wrestling World Championships <p><em>Background and study aim. </em>The purpose of this study was to determine the relative contribution of energy systems in a freestyle (FS) and a Greco-Roman (GR) wrestling match, quantity and quality of obtained scores, and the competition efficiency of winners in the 2017 Wrestling World Championships (WCh) through analysing the recorded videos of all the matches of this event.</p> <p><em>Material and method. </em>The materials of the present study were 295 FS and 266 GR recorded videos of the 2017 WCh, a multimedia player (lap top) for watching and analysing them, and a chronometer for recording the different duration of activities happening during these matches. In addition, special papers were designed in advance to make sure that all the required data were recorded properly.</p> <p><em>Result.</em> The percentages of ATP-PC (ATP), lactic (LAC), and aerobic (AERO) energy systems were 6.66, 62.74, and 30.60 in FS, and 5.94, 67.53, and 26.53 in GR. Quantity and quality analysis of scores showed that FS wrestlers significantly scored more 1- and 4-point, while GR wrestlers were superior regarding the quality 2-point. The average competition efficiency of gold medallists was 18/43±4/67 in FS and 15/87±3/18 in GR which were statistically significantly greater than that of all other placers.</p> <p><em>Conclusion.</em> This study showed the dominance of LAC in a wrestling match in both styles, although their relative contribution was significantly different between styles. In addition, FS wrestlers significantly scored more points, and Gold medallists demonstrated the greatest average competition efficiency compared to other medallists.</p> Bahman Mirzaei, Iman Faryabi, Heidar Alizaei Yousefabadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 25 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of six weeks CoBAgi training on coordination, dynamic balance & agility of adolescent handball players <p><em>Background and Study Aim</em>. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects CoBAgi Training which apply neuromuscular training, sport specific movements that couple with perturbation variation on coordination, dynamic balance and agility among adolescent handball players.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods</em>. Quantitative randomized controlled trials quasi-experimental design with pretest and posttest evaluation used for this study. A total of 30 adolescent handball players (aged: 14.00 ± 0.83 years) were recruited as participants. Purposive sampling methods were used for these purposes. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups i.e. control group (CG: n=15) and experimental group (EG: n=15). EG undergone six weeks CoBAgi training while CG followed their usual training routine with supervision of the researcher, there times a week for 6 weeks. In order to measure the effect of these training on coordination, dynamic balance and agility, participants have performed Carioca Test, Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and L-Run Test during pre-training and post-training session. The data were analyzed through Independent Samples t-test with p&lt;0.05 “Statistical Package for the Social Sciences” (SPSS) program.</p> <p><em>Result</em>. After completed the six weeks training duration, there were significant difference identified in coordination (t=-2.290, P=0.030*), dynamic balance (t= 4.802, P=0.000*) and agility (t=-3.202, P= 0.003*) between EG and CG.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>. Therefore, this study revealed that CoBAgi training could improve abilities performance of coordination, dynamic balance and agility, and this suggesting that CoBAgi training may be use as rehabilitation and pre-rehabilitation training strategies in order for injury prevention plan as well as improve sports performance especially among the adolescent handball players.</p> Mohamad Hasif B. Mohamad Puzi, Lee A. Choo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 25 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Differences in the degree of nutrition and body composition of boys and girls of pubertal age <p><em>Background and Study Aim. </em>The nutritional status of children can be assessed on the basis of clinical examination, laboratory procedures and anthropometric measurements. Height and body weight are most often used to determine nutrition. Children and adolescents who are at risk of being overweight often also become obese adults.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods. </em>The research was conducted on a sample of 136 students (67 boys and 69 girls), with an average age of 11.56 years. The aim of the study was to determine the degree and differences in the degree of nutrition and body composition in boys and girls of pubertal age.</p> <p><em>Results.</em> Based on the obtained results, T-test for small independent samples, it was determined that there are no statistically significant differences between boys and girls, both in the degree of nutrition and body composition, estimated by 10 variables using bioelectric impedance InBody 720. Also, it was found that 19.70% of boys are obese, as well as 17.40% of girls. Cumulatively with the percentage of malnourished respondents, a total of 61.50% of boys were not normally fed, as were 37.70% of girls. The obtained results indicate the need for a more extensive review of the analysed segments and a significantly larger sample of respondents, in order to act preventively in the fight against obesity, as the leading epidemiological health problem of today.</p> <p><em>Conclusion.</em> It is obvious that physical activity based on physical education classes is not sufficient or is not sufficiently represented to meet the challenges of the modern way of life of children.</p> Elvira Nikšić, Marko Joksimović, Edin Beganović, Novica Gardašević ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 25 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of functional and supportive classic strength trainings in basketball players on aerobic strength, dynamic balance and body composition <p><em>Background and Study Aim</em><em>. </em>It has been aimed to investigate the effects of functional and supportive classic strength trainings in basketball players on aerobic strength, dynamic balance and body composition.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods</em><em>. </em>In the study, the test group has performed functional + supportive classic strength training (n=15; 20, 8 ± 1,7 year) three days in a week for eight weeks. Within the process, test and control groups have also continued basketball technical tactics trainings two days in a week. The control group (n=15; 21, 06 ± 1,9 year) has not performed any strength training. The participants have been tested in terms of height, body weight, skinfold calipers, watt bike pro ramp aerobic capacity test and libra see saw balancing board test. When identifying the percentage of body fat, lunge formula has been used. The data has been evaluated with Repetitive Measurements Anova Test.</p> <p><em>Results. </em>In comparing the group x time interaction, while the developmental difference in the values of VO<sub>2max</sub> Estimate (mg/kg/min), MET, the percentage of body fat and Left foot lateral balance test has been found out statistically substantial in test and control groups, no significant difference in lateral balance on both feet, right foot lateral balance the measurements and transfer balance measurements on both feet has been found out.</p> <p><em>Conclusions. </em>As a consequence, it has been seen that functional and supportive strength trainings have contributed to the percentage of body fat, aerobic capacity and dynamic balance. In the planning of yearly training it has been seen that functional strength trainings in preparation phase will contribute to the development levels of basketball players.</p> Ali Türker, Oğuzhan Yüksel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 25 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The relationship between the motor skills level and the severity of autism disorder in children with autism <p><em>Background and Study Aim. </em>This study aimed to determine the relationship between the level of fine and gross motor skills and motor proficiency with the severity of autism disorder in children with autism.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods.</em> 68 children with autism, ranged from 3-16 years old, were selected. Motor Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) was used to assess fine and gross motor skills and motor proficiency. Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2 (GARS-2) test was also used for assessing the severity of autism disorder in the participants.</p> <p><em>Results.</em> The obtained results from the Pearson correlation test showed that there was a significant and negative relationship between sub-scales of GARS-2 and MABC-2 tests (P&lt;0.05). It means that decreasing the level of motor skills increases the autism severity. The results of the regression test also showed that only the total score of motor proficiency among microscales of the MABC-2 test could predict the stereotypes, social skills, communication skills, and autism severity (P&lt;0.05).</p> <p><em>Conclusion.</em> The results of the current study indicated the pivotal role of motor skills growth in determining the level of autism disorder. It also emphasized on embedding motor interventions in rehabilitation programs of such people.</p> Ali Akbar Barrodi sedehi, Abdollah Ghasemi, Ali Kashi, Elham Azimzadeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 25 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000