The relationship between watching sport events and spectators’ engagement in physical activities

Keywords: physical activity, spectator, stadiums, sports

Abstract

Background and Study Aim: The purpose of the present research was to investigate the relationship between watching sport events in stadiums and spectators’ physical activities. Materials and Methods: The population included spectators of basketball, volleyball, and handball in Tehran stadiums, which is estimated to be more than a hundred thousand people. The sample consisted of 384 spectators who were chosen using the Morgan Table in the simple random method, and they filled the questionnaire before the games started. The instrument was a researcher-developed questionnaire whose validity was confirmed by sports management and communication experts. The reliability was obtained to be 0.86 using Cronbach's alpha test. The collected data was analyzed using K-S test, chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient (using SPSS software), and confirmatory factor analysis (using LISREL 8.8 software). Results: The results indicated that there is a significant positive relationship between watching sport events in stadiums and spectators’ intention to do physical activities. Also, there was a significant positive relation between effective factors on spectator during watching sport events and doing physical activities. These factors are related to the stadiums, sport events and social interrelation. Conclusions : It seems that watching sport events and the encouraging factors in sporting environment and stadiums promotes physical activity and health. Since the present research focuses on an important social effect of sport events, it can be a start point for researchers to discover if encouraging people to watch sport events is a way to maintain social health.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 189 | PDF Downloads: 174 |

Author Biographies

M. Palik, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Tehran
teamworkir1@gmail.com; Tehran, Enghelab Square, Iran
K. Abdi, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
goodkambiz@gmail.com; Razavi Khorasan Province, 9177948974, Mashhad, Iran

References

1. Jalali Farahani M. Management of leisure and recreational sports. Tehran University Press; 2008.

2. Sharifi G. Effects of a specific exercise program on cardiovascular risk factors and comparison with one of conventional exercise programs in the morning. Olympic Quarter, 2000; 3:3-4.

3. Sanei S. Fitness and its relationship with depression and mental health among faculty members of the military universities. Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch; 2004.

4. Roshandel T. Explaining the role of the media in establishing the public sports in the country. Motion Magazine, 2007; 10:33-40.

5. Organization of Physical Education. Strategic document of the comprehensive system of physical education and sports development. Council of Ministers meeting; 2003.

6. Mull R. Recreational sport management. Human Kinetics Pub.; 2005.

7. Mahoney D, Nakazawa M, Funk D, James J, Gladden J. Motivational influencing factors on the behavior of league spectators. Sport management review, 2002; 5(1): 1-24.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1441-3523(02)70059-4

8. Ghasemi H. Media activities in sport. Bamdadeh Ketab Publication; 2008.

9. Mehus Ingar. Distinction through sport consumption: spectator of soccer, basketball, and ski-jumping. Norwegian university of science and technology, Norway. International review for the sociology of sport, 2005; 40(5): 132-141.

10. Wilson C. The paradox of social class and sports involvement Florida Atlantic University. Sociology of sport, 2002;1:5-16.

11. Torkfar A. Effective motivational factors on spectators’ attraction to Iranian football league clubs. Faculty of Physical Education, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Central Branch; 2009.

12. Naeli M. Motivation in organizations. First Edition, Martyr Chamran University; 1994.

13. Nicholson M, Hoye R. Contextual factors associated with poor sport spectator behaviour. Managing leisure, 2005; 10: 94-105.
https://doi.org/10.1080/13606710500146175

14. Koski P. Physical activity relationship (PAR). International review for the sociology of sport, 2008; 43: 151-158.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1012690208095374

15. Weiss MR, Chaill BR, Pear AJ. Intensive participation in children’s sport. Psychology effects of intensive sport participation on children and youth. Self-esteem, 1993; 1:39-69.

16. Zhang JJ, Pease DG, Lam ET. Variables influencing the spectator decision to attend NBA game. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 2001; 5(1): 29-39.

17. Anvar Alkhuly A, Sheikhi H. Sports and society. Islamic Research Foundation of Razavi Astan Quds and SAMT, Mashhad and Tehran, 2001.

18. Ramezani Nejad R, Rahmany Nia F, Taqavi Takyar A. A study of Motivations of participants in the open spaces public sports. Journal of Sport Management, 2009; (2):19-5.

19. Safa Nia A. Assessment of student participation in sports activities. Research Project, Islamic Azad University, Sari Branch; 2001.

20. Funk D, James J. The fan attitude network (FAN) model: Exploring attitude formation and change among sport consumers. Griffith University. Sport management review, 2004; (7): 1-26.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1441-3523(04)70043-1

21. Lee J, Macdonald D, Wright J. Young men’s physical activity choices: The impact of capital, Masculinities and location. Journal of sport and social issues 2009; (33): 50-59.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0193723508328904

22. Kialashaki R. Assessment of aggression in sports arenas from the viewpoint of the spectators, athletes, and physical education experts. [PhD thesis] University of Guilan; 2008.

23. Hooi SL, Yusof A. Spectator Perceptions of Physical Facility and Team Quality: A study of a Malaysian super league soccer tournament. Journal of international studies, 2008; 8: 100-107.

24. Hall J, Mahony B, Vieceli J. An empirical model of attendance factors at major sports events. Australia International Journal of hospitality management, 2010; 29: 328-334.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2009.10.011
Published
2018-12-20
How to Cite
1.
Palik M, Abdi K. The relationship between watching sport events and spectators’ engagement in physical activities. Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports. 2018;22(6):320-7. https://doi.org/10.15561/18189172.2018.0607
Section
Articles