The impact of variability and distribution of practice on student’s learning of basketball throw skill

Keywords: massed, practice, distributed, variable, constant


Purpose: The practice organization is an important factor in sports environment and education. This study aimed to investigate the impact of variability and distribution of practice on basketball throw skill learning among female elementary school students. Material: Based on the pre-test scores of 15 attempts (5 throw from any distances of 3, 3.5, and 4 meters), 90 volunteer participants were distributed in 6 homogeneous groups of 15 participants (three massed practice groups and three distributed practice groups with blocked, increasing, and decreasing practice arrangements). In acquisition stage, the participants practiced for 9 sessions. After 72 hours, all participants conducted the retention test. Changing the angle at a distance of 3.5 meters, the transfer test was conducted at the same day. Results: The findings showed that the variability and distribution of practice did not impact on participants’ performance in acquisition, retention, and transfer stages. Conclusions: For development of contextual interference effect, the variability in parameters of a motor program is not enough.


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Author Biographies

Gh. Lotfi, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University; P. O. Box: 16785-163. Lavizzan, Tehran, Iran
M. Baghaeyan, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University; P. O. Box: 16785-163. Lavizzan, Tehran, Iran
N. Baghaee, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University; P. O. Box: 16785-163. Lavizzan, Tehran, Iran


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How to Cite
Lotfi, G., Baghaeyan, M., & Baghaee, N. (2019). The impact of variability and distribution of practice on student’s learning of basketball throw skill. Pedagogics, Psychology, Medical-Biological Problems of Physical Training and Sports, 23(1), 14-18.