The impact of variability and distribution of practice on student’s learning of basketball throw skill

Keywords: massed, practice, distributed, variable, constant

Abstract

Purpose: The practice organization is an important factor in sports environment and education. This study aimed to investigate the impact of variability and distribution of practice on basketball throw skill learning among female elementary school students. Material: Based on the pre-test scores of 15 attempts (5 throw from any distances of 3, 3.5, and 4 meters), 90 volunteer participants were distributed in 6 homogeneous groups of 15 participants (three massed practice groups and three distributed practice groups with blocked, increasing, and decreasing practice arrangements). In acquisition stage, the participants practiced for 9 sessions. After 72 hours, all participants conducted the retention test. Changing the angle at a distance of 3.5 meters, the transfer test was conducted at the same day. Results: The findings showed that the variability and distribution of practice did not impact on participants’ performance in acquisition, retention, and transfer stages. Conclusions: For development of contextual interference effect, the variability in parameters of a motor program is not enough.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

View Counter: Abstract | 59 | times, Article PDF |

Author Biographies

Gh. Lotfi, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University
gholamrezalotfi@sru.ac.ir; P. O. Box: 16785-163. Lavizzan, Tehran, Iran
M. Baghaeyan, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University
masysport@yahoo.com; P. O. Box: 16785-163. Lavizzan, Tehran, Iran
N. Baghaee, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University
baghaeeneda@gmail.com; P. O. Box: 16785-163. Lavizzan, Tehran, Iran

References

1. Magill RA, Anderson D. Motor learning and control: concepts and applications. 11th Edition. Columbus OH: McGraw – Hill College; 2016.

2. Schmidt RA, Lee TD. Motor learning and performance: from principles to application. 5th Edition. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics; 2014.

3. Fazel Kalkhoran A, Shariati A. The effects of contextual interference on learning volleyball motor skills. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 2012; 12(4):550.

4. Battig WF. Facilitation and interference. in E A Bilodeau (Ed.), Acquisition of skill. New York: Academic Press. 1966.

5. Battig W F. The flexibility of human memory. In: L S Cemark and F I M Craik. (Eds), Levels of processing in human memory. New Jersey: Hillsdale Publishers; 1979.

6. Shea JB, Zimny ST. Context effects in memory and learning movement information. Memory and Control of Action, 1983;12: 345-366.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4115(08)61998-6

7. Maslovat D, Chus R, Lee T D, Franks IM. Contextual interference: single task versus multi-task learning. Motor Control, 2004; 8(2): 213-233.
https://doi.org/10.1123/mcj.8.2.213

8. Goodwin JE, Grimes CR, Eckerson JM, Gordon PM. Effect of different quantities of variable practice on acquisition and retention and transfer of an applied motor skill. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1998; 87(1): 147-151.
https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1998.87.1.147

9. Travlos AK. Specificity and variability of practice, and contextual interference in acquisition and transfer of underhand volleyball serve. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 2010; 110(1): 298- 312.
https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.110.1.298-312

10. Rahavi R, Shojaee M, Estiri Z, Naghizadeh H. The effect of two types of interference before performance and during performance on learning of generalized motor program and parameter in basketball fundamental skills. Journal of Development and Motor Learning, 2013; 2(12):107-124. (In Persian)

11. Pauwels L, Vancleef K, Swinnen S P, Beets I A M. Challenge to promote change: both young and older adults benefit from contextual interference. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 2015; 7: 157.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2015.00157

12. Correa UC, Walter C, Torriani-Pasin C, Barros JA, Tani G. Effects of the amount and schedule of varied practice after constant practice on the adaptive process of motor learning. Motricidade, 2014; 10(4):35-46.

13. Lotfi Gh, Khalaji H, Bahram A, Farrokhi A. Contextual interference effect on performance and learning of basketball free throw. Journal of Movement Science and Sport, 2006; 4(1):63-76. (In Persian)

14. Mokhtari Dinani M, Farrokhi A, Lotfi Gh, Nazarian A. The effect of variability of practice on the performance and learning of coordinated – coincident task. Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 2013; 1(2):11-18. (In Persian)

15. Guadagnoli MA, Lee TD. Challenge point: a framework for conceptualizing the effect of various practice condition in motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior, 2004; 36(2): 212-224.
https://doi.org/10.3200/JMBR.36.2.212-224

16. Fromer R. Learning to throw: contributions of contextual interference and individual differences to the acquisition of a complex motor skill. Unpublished dissertation, Humboldt University of Berlin; 2016.

17. Guadagnoli MA, Holcomb WR, Weber TJ. The relationship between contextual interference effect and performer expertise on the learning of a putting task. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1999; 37(1): 19-36.

18. Pasand F, Fooladiyanzadeh H, Nazemzadegan Gh. The effect of gradual increase in contextual interference on acquisition, retention and transfer of volleyball skills. International Journal of Kinesiology and Sport Sciences, 2016; 4(2):72.

19. Garcia JA, Moreno FJ, Reina R, Menayo R, Fuentes JP. Analysis of effects of distribution of practice in learning and retention of a continuous and a discrete skill presented on computer. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 2008; 107(1): 261-272.
https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.107.1.261-272

20. Leite C, Ugrinovitsch H, Carvalho M, Benda R N. Distribution of practice affect older, but not young adults’ motor skill learning. Human Movement, 2013; 14(1): 20-26.
https://doi.org/10.2478/v10038-012-0050-1

21. Dail TK, Christiana RW. Distribution of practice and met cognition in learning and long – term retention of a discrete motor task. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2004; 75(2): 148-155.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2004.10609146

Abstract views: 59
PDF Downloads: 111
Published
2019-02-26
How to Cite
Lotfi, G., Baghaeyan, M., & Baghaee, N. (2019). The impact of variability and distribution of practice on student’s learning of basketball throw skill. Pedagogics, Psychology, Medical-Biological Problems of Physical Training and Sports, 23(1), 14-18. https://doi.org/10.15561/18189172.2019.0102
Section
Articles