Formative Assessment: Exploring Tunisian Cooperative Teachers Practices in Physical Education

Keywords: Preparatory traineeship, Physical Education, trainee, Cooperative teacher


Purpose: This article is based on questions related to the formative assessment of preparatory trainee ship in the professional life of Physical Education teachers. In general, in the first training program, the traineeship represents an integral part of training. In this sense, the traineeship offers a vital opportunity for future teacher to gain practical experience in the real environment, given that formative evaluation is a process of collecting evidence from trainees by cooperative teachers to make decisions about their knowledge and skills, to guide their own instructional activities and to control their behavior. Accordingly, this study proposed to explore practices of Tunisians cooperative teachers in relation to the formative assessment. Material: To verify our proposed object, we conducted a research using a questionnaire distributed among 96 cooperative teachers in different educational institutions located in the region of the greater Tunis. During the school year 2015-2016, the questionnaire was the subject of a statistical analysis using frequencies and percentages. Results: The analysis of such data revealed a range of practices about formative estimation among cooperative teachers. In particular, each teacher acknowledged the value of guiding and encouraging student’s self-assessment. So that they could lead their students to assume a share of evaluative activity. Conclusion: Both theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed, and some recommendations are made for future practice.


Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 216 | PDF Downloads: 82 |

Author Biographies

Melki Hasan, Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education
Ksar Saïd 2010, MANOUBA, Tunisia
S. Bouzid Mohamed, Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education
Ksar Saïd 2010, MANOUBA, Tunisia
Haweni Aymen, Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education
Ksar Saïd 2010, MANOUBA, Tunisia
Fadhloun Mourad, Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education
Ksar Saïd 2010, MANOUBA, Tunisia
Mrayeh Meher, Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education
Ksar Saïd 2010, MANOUBA, Tunisia
Souissi Nizar, Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education
Ksar Saïd 2010, MANOUBA, Tunisia


Melki H, Bouzid MS, Hawani A, Mrayeh M, Souissi N. Identification of Prevailing Roles to Which Tunisian Cooperative Teachers (CT) Attach a Big Importance in Accompanying Teacher Students (TS). Creative Education, 2016;7(09):1244. doi:10.4236/ce.2016.79131

Acheson KA, Gall MD. La supervision pédagogique. Méthodes et secrets d'un superviseur clinicien. Logiques. [Pedagogical supervision. Methods and secrets of a clinical supervisor. Logical]. 1993. (in French)

Boudreau P. Que se passe-t-il dans un stage réussi? [What is happening in a successful internship?] Revue des sciences de l'éducation, 2001;27(1):65-84. (in French)

Portelance L. Analyse des perceptions du soutien d’un enseignant associé à la formation du stagiaire [Analysis of perceptions of teacher support associated with trainee training]. Éducation et francophonie, 2010; 38(2): 21-38. (in French)

Perrenoud P. Les cycles d'apprentissage: une autre organisation du travail pour combattre l'échec scolaire [Learning Cycles: Another Work Organization to Combat Educational Failure]. PUQ; 2002. (in French)

Talvitie U, Peltokallio L, Mannisto P. Student teachers' views about their relationships with university supervisors, cooperating teachers and peer student teachers. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 2000;44(1): 79-88. doi:10.1080/713696662

Durand M. L'enfant et le sport. [Children and sport]. Presses universitaires de France; 2000. (in French.

Pelpel P. Accueillir, accompagner, former des enseignants. [Greet, accompany, train teachers]. Chronique sociale; 2003. (in French)

Clerc F. Former des praticiens-formateurs. La formation des enseignants sur le terrain. [Train practitioners-trainers. Teacher training in the field].Paris: Hachette Éducation; 1998. (in French)

Provencher Y. Aide sociale au Nouveau-Brunswick: Le discours des personnes assistées sociales aux sujets de leurs rapports avec leur gestionnaire de cas [Social Assistance in New Brunswick: Welfare Recipients' Discourse on Relationship to Case Manager]. Canadian Review of Social Policy/Revue canadienne de politique sociale. 2000;59:14-21. (in French)

Morrison FJ, Connor CM, Bachman HJ. The transition to school. In: D. K. Dickinson, & S. B. Neuman (Ed.), Handbook of early literacy. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2005;2:111–135. doi:10.1080/19345747.2010.510179

Kitiashvili A. Teachers’ attitudes toward assessment of student learning and teacher assessment practices in general educational institutions: The case of Georgia. Improving Schools, 2014;17(2):163-175. doi:10.1177/1365480214534543

Black Paul, Harrison Chris, Lee Clara. Assessment for learning: Putting it into practice. McGraw-Hill Education (UK); 2003.

Missett TC, Brunner MM, Callahan CM, Moon TR, Price Azano A. Exploring teacher beliefs and use of acceleration, ability grouping, and formative assessment. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 2014; 37(3): 245-268. doi:10.1177/0162353214541326

Clark I. Formative assessment: ‘There is nothing as practical as a good theory’. Australian Journal of Education, 2010; 54(3), 341-352. doi:10.1177/000494411005400308

Tomlinson CA. The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development; 1999.

Delisle S, Cantin G. Évaluation en stage un modèle de grilles. [Internship evaluation a grid pattern]. 1994. (in French)

Robidas G, Fredette JC. Grilles d'évaluation formative et sommative des habiletés d'exécution dans différents profils de l'enseignement professionnel [Formative and summative assessment grids of performance skills in different vocational education profiles].1984. (in French)

Gagné F. Academic talent development and the equity issue in gifted education. Talent Development & Excellence, 2011; 3: 3–22.

Brookhart SM. Expanding views about formative assessment: A review of the literature. In: H. McMillan (Ed.), Formative assessment classroom: Theory into practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press; 2007.

Borges C, Séguin C. Le soutien aux stagiaires en difficulté en formation initiale en éducation physique et à la santé. Quand le stage en enseignement déraille: regards pluriels sur une réalité trop souvent occultée. [Supporting students in difficulty in initial training in physical education and health. When teaching internship derails: plural views on a reality too often obscured]. 2013. (in French)

Gosselin L. Les modalités en français: la validation des représentations [ The modalities in French: the validation of representations]. 2010. (in French)

Boutin G. Les recherches sur la triade et leur contribution à la formation des enseignantes et des enseignants. La recherche en formation des maîtres: Détour ou passage obligé sur la voie de la professionnalisation. [Research on the triad and their contribution to the training of teachers. Research in teacher training: Detour or necessary step towards professionalization]. 1993. (in French)

Andrade HL, Cizek GJ. Handbook of formative assessment. New York, NY: Routledge; 2010.

Black P, Wiliam D. Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy, & Practice, 1998; 574:56-65. doi:10.1080/0969595980050102

Hughes GB. Formative assessment practices that maximize learning for students at risk. In: H. Andrade & G. Cizek (Ed.), Handbook of formative assessment. New York, NY: Routledge; 2010.

Azano A. The Posssibility of Place: One Teacher's Use of Place-Based Instruction for English Students in a Rural High School. Journal of Research in Rural Education (Online), 2011;26(10):1-10.

Smith SR, Wiggins CM, Gorske TT. A survey of psychological assessment feedback practices. Assessment, 2007; 14(3), 310-319. doi:10.1177/1073191107302842

Shute V. Focus on formative feedback. Review of Educational Research, 2008;78:153–189. doi:10.3102/0034654307313795

Howe R, Ménard L. Croyances et pratiques en évaluation des apprentissages. [Beliefs and practices in evaluation of learning]. Laval: Cégep Montmorency (PAREA);1993. (in French)

Desbiens JF, Borges C, Spallanzani C. Investir dans la formation des personnes enseignantes associées pour faire du stage en enseignement un instrument de développement professionnel [Investing in the Training of Associate Teachers to Make Teaching Internship an Instrument of Professional Development]. Éducation et francophonie, 2009;37(1): 6-25. (in French).

Molina EC, Gervais C. Les stages en formation à l'enseignement: pratiques et perspectives théoriques [Teacher training courses: theoretical practices and perspectives]. PUQ; 2008. (in French)

Fortin M.-F. Fondements et étapes du processus de recherche. Méthodes quantitatives et qualitatives [Foundations and stages of the research process. Quantitative and qualitative methods]. Montréal: Chenelière éducation; 2010. (in French)

Karsenti T, Savoie-Zajc L. La recherche en éducation. Étapes et approches [Research in education. Steps and Approaches]. 2011. (in French)

Maxwell JA. Conceptual framework: What do you think is going on. Qualitative research design: An interactive approach, 2005;41:33-63.

Acheson K Gall, Et Gall M. Techniques in the Clinical Supervision of teachers. 2005.

Arpin L, Capra L. Accompagner l’enseignant dans son parcours professionnel [Accompany the teacher in his / her professional career]. Montréal: Chenelière Éducation; 2008. (in French).

Paul Rhea. Language disorders from infancy through adolescence: Assessment & intervention. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2007.

Van Nieuwenhoven C, Colognesi S, Bothy É, Wattiez R. Une recherche collaborative sur l’accompagnement des futurs instituteurs: un levier de développement professionnel pour les maîtres de stage [A collaborative research on the support of future teachers: a lever of professional development for the tutors]. Evaluer. Journal International de Recherche en Education et Formation, 2015;1(2):103-12.. (in French)

Stevenson JL, Lindley CE, Murlo N. Retrospectively Assessed Early Motor and Current Pragmatic Language Skills in Autistic and Neurotypical Children. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 2017; 124(4):777-794. doi:10.1177/0031512517710379

Desgagné S. Le concept de recherche collaborative: l’idée d’un rapprochement entre chercheurs universitaires et praticiens enseignants [The concept of collaborative research: the idea of a rapprochement between university researchers and teaching practitioners]. Revue des sciences de l'éducation, 1997;23(2):371-393. (in French)

Schon Donald A. The reflective practicioner: how professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books; 1983.

Charpentier C, Duchène M. L’accompagnement, un certain rapport des hommes entre eux.[ Accompaniment, a certain relationship between men]. Sciences-Croisées, 2009;5:25-32. (in French)

Altet M, Paquay L, Perrenoud P. Formateurs d'enseignants: quelle professionnalisation? [Teacher educators: what professional?]. De Boeck Supérieur; 2002. (in French)

Robillard D, Saint-Louis F. Le partenariat, un lieu privilégié de formation continue pour l’enseignant de métier. D. Raymond & Y. Lenoir. Enseignants de métier et formation initiale: des changements dans les rapports de formation à l’enseignement. [Partnership, a privileged place of continuing education for the trade teacher. D. Raymond & Y. Lenoir. Trades Teachers and Initial Training: Changes in Teacher Education Reports]. Bruxelles-Paris: De Boeck; 1998. (in French)

Gaudreau L. Évaluer pour évoluer. Les indicateurs et les critères [Evaluate to evolve. Indicators and criteria]. Outremont: Les éditions Logiques; 2001. (in French)

Scallon G. L'évaluation formative des apprentissages [Formative assessment of learning]. Presses Université Laval; 1988. (in French)

Leroux JL. Évaluer pour faire apprendre. Se former à la pédagogie de l'enseignement supérieur [Evaluate for learning. Training in Higher Education Pedagogy]. 2014. (in French)

Vanhulle S. Dire les savoirs professionnels: savoirs de référence et logiques d'action [Saying professional knowledge: reference knowledge and action logics]. De Boeck Supérieur; 2009. (in French)

Lafortune L. Accompagnement-recherche-formation d’un changement en éducation: un processus exigeant une démarche de pratique réflexive [Accompaniment-research-training for change in education: a process requiring a reflective practice]. Revue des HEP de Suisse romande et du Tessin: Formation et pratiques d’enseignement en questions, 2006;5:187-202.. (in French)

Van Nieuwenhoven C, Labeeu M. L’accompagnement par le superviseur lors de l’entretien à chaud dans un curriculum à visée réflexive [Supervisor support during hot interview in a reflective curriculum]. Éducation et francophonie, 2010;38(2):39-59. (in French)

Guillemette F, Lapointe JR. L’autoformation du stagiaire. Favoriser la progression des stagiaires en enseignement [The trainee's self-training. Promote the progression of teaching trainees]. 2011. (in French)

How to Cite
Hasan, M., Mohamed, S. B., Aymen, H., Mourad, F., Meher, M., & Nizar, S. (2017). Formative Assessment: Exploring Tunisian Cooperative Teachers Practices in Physical Education. Pedagogics, Psychology, Medical-Biological Problems of Physical Training and Sports, 21(5), 227-235.