Doping in olympic sport: signs of the crisis and ways to overcome it

Keywords: doping in Olympic sport, anti-doping activities, WADA, World Anti-Doping Code

Abstract

The paper contains analysis of modern history of the spread of doping in Olympic sport, the IOC’s fight against this negative phenomenon and activities of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) established in 1999 and designed to eradicate doping. It is shown that, despite ever-increasing financial and human resources along with expanded legal capabilities, intensive propaganda efforts, increased volume of testing, severe sanctions, support from reputable international organizations (UN, UNESCO, Council of Europe), the Agency's multi-year activities is not only brought the Olympic sport closer to solving the problem, but also dramatically aggravated and made it dangerous for the credibility and the well-being of the Olympic movement. It is not only and not so much about the competition in elite sport, which has dramatically increased recent years, and socio-political and commercial attractiveness of success at the Olympics, but about fundamentally misguided methodology underlying WADA’s activities, based on neglect of biological, medical and sports sciences’ achievements, and realities of modern elite sports, and drawn up on the ideas of lawyers, economists and “universal managers". The paper outlines in detail outcomes of WADA activities and anti-doping laboratories accredited by the Agency, which manifested themselves in many crisis phenomena moved far beyond the limits of the Olympic sport. Furthermore, the prospects of coming out of the grave crisis developed in this area are delineated.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

View Counter: Abstract | 512 | times, Article PDF |

References

Belonog Yu. Kto platit – tot i diktuet [Who pays – dictates]. Kievskii Telegraf, 2003;30:1-2. (in Russian)


V MLB uzhestochili bor'bu s dopingom [MLB tightened up fight against doping]. [Internet]. 2005 Nov 15 [cited 2016 Nov 09]. Available from: http://www.sport-express.ru/baseball/news/105168/ (in Russian)


Gorchakova NA, Gudivok YaS, Gunina LM. Farmakologiia sporta [Pharmacology of sport]. Кiev: Olympic literature; 2010. (in Russian)


Gunina L. Anabolicheskie agenty v sporte: mekhanizm dopingovogo dejstviia i pobochnye effekty [Anabolic agents in sport: stimulating mechanisms of action and side effects]. Nauka v olimpijskom sporte, 2015;4:39-48. (in Russian)


Jusoity A. Chestnaia igra [Fair play]. Kommersant, 2008;83:1-2. (in Russian)


Kruchinskiy N. Doping-kontrol' v sporte: obzor poslednikh sobytij [Doping control in sport: an overview of recent events]. Nauka v olimpijskom sporte, 2014;4:42-50. (in Russian)


Ledashin D, Kharitonova A, Khrushchev V. Medal' s efedrinom [Medal with ephedrine]. Sovershenno sekretno, 2003;10:30-31. (in Russian)


Miah A, Garcia B. Osnovy Olimpizma [Fundamentals of Olympism], Moscow: Reed Media; 2013. (in Russian)


NKhL uzhestochit bor'bu s dopingom [NHL toughens fight against doping]. [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2016 Nov 09]. Available from: http://www.newsru.com/sport/31may2009/ garri.html (in Russian)


Platonov VN. Doping v olimpijskom sporte: istoriia, sostoianie, perspektivy [Doping in Olympic sport: history, status, prospects]. In: Platonov VN, editor. Doping i ergogennye sredstva v sporte [Doping and ergogenic aids in sports]. Kiev: Olympic literature, 2003; p. 9-49. (in Russian)


Platonov VN. Sistema podgotovki sportsmenov v olimpijskom sporte: obshchaia teoriia i ee prakticheskie prilozheniia [The system of preparing athletes in the Olympic sport: general theory and its practical applications], Kyiv: Olympic literature; 2004. (in Russian)


Platonov VN. Olimpijskij sport [Olympic sport]. Kiev; 2009;2. (in Russian)


Platonov VN. Sistema podgotovki sportsmenov v olimpijskom sporte. Obshchaia teoriia i ee prakticheskie prilozheniia [The system of preparing athletes in the Olympic sport. General theory and its practical applications]:Кyiv: Olympic literature; 2015;2. (in Russian)


Redko AYu, Baksheev CN. Medicinskoe zakonodatel'stvo Ukrainy s pozicii zashchity prav vracha akushera-ginekologa [Medical legislation of Ukraine from the perspective of the protection of the rights of the gynecologist]. Doktor, [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2016 Nov 09]; 1. Available from: http://www.critical.ru/actual/etica/ukrain_medlow.htm


Saltinskie repressii[Saltin's repressions]. Izvestiia 2003 Jan 21.


Skorodumova AP, Kuznetsov AA. Specifika sorevnovatel'nykh nagruzok vysokokvalificirovannykh tennisistov [The specifics of competitive loads of highly qualified tennis players]. Vestnik sportivnoj nauki, 2013;6:19-22.


Antonio J, Stout JR. Supplements for endurance athletes. Champain, Illinois: Human Kinetics; 2003.


Backhouse SH, McKenna J. Doping in sport: a review of medical practitioners' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Int J Drug Policy. 2011;22(3):198–202. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2011.03.002


Berry DA. The science of doping. Nature, 2008;454(7205):692–693.


Coleman JE, Levine JM. The burden of proof in endogenous substance cases: A masking agent for junk science. McNamee M, Moller V, editors. Doping and anti-doping policy in sport. London: Routledge; 2011.


Corrigan B, Kaslauskas R. Mission Statement. International Olympic Committee (IOC). [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2016 Nov 09]; Available from: http://www.sportsdrugs.com/aps/ss aboutus.asp


Donahue EG, Miquelon P, Valois P. A motivational model of performance-enhancing substance use in elite athletes. J. of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2006;28:511–520.


Doping – Medical Commission Olympic Committee. Lausanne; 1972.


Gucciardi DF, Jalleh G, Donovan RJ. An examination of the Sport Drug Control Model with elite Australian athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2011;14(6):469–476. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2011.03.009


Hanstad DV, Loland S. Elite athletes’ duty to provide information on their whereabouts: justifiable anti-doping work or an indefensible surveillance regime? Europ. J. Sport Sci. 2009;9(1):3–10.


Harmer PA. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among young male and female athletes: Is the game to blame? British J. of Sports Medicine, 2010;44:26–31.


Hartgens F. Medication, athletes and doping regulations. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2008;152(33):1844–1848. [in Dutch]


Harvey K. Sports science and medicine: ethics. Background Paper; 2014.


Jeffreys I. Supplements for strength-power athletes. New York: Human Kinetics; 2002.


Kayser B. Exercise starts and ends in the brain. Europ. J. of Applied Physiology. 2003;90:411-419.


Kayser B, Mauron A, Miah A. Current anti-doping policy: a critical appraisal. BMC Med. Ethics. 2007;8:2-3.


Kenney LW, Wilmore JH, Costill DL. Physiology of Sport and Exercise. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2012.


Kleiner SM. Power Eating. – N. Y.: Human Kinetics; 2003.


Koller DL. From Medals to Morality: Sportive Nationalism and the Problem of Doping in Sports. Marquette Sports Law Rev. 2008;19(1):92–123.


Layden T, Yaeger D. Playing Favorites an ex-UCOS official some athletes were allowed to bend the drug rules. [cited 2016 September 1]. Available from: http://sportsillustrate.crm.com/si_online/scorecard /news/2003/04/15sc/


Lukas JA. Future of the Olympic Games. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 1992.


Maeschalck J. Dispute resolution in high performance sport and how it influences elite athletes’ careers. In: Sotiriadou P, De Bosscher V (ed.). Managing high performance sport. New York: Routledge; 2013.P. 285–288.


Malloy DC, Zakus DH. Ethics of drug testing in sport-An invasion of privacy justified? Sport, Education and Society. 2002;7(2):203–218.


Mazanov J, Connor J. Rethinking the management of drugs in sport. Int. J. of Sport Policy and Politics, 2010;2(1):49–63. doi:10.1080/19406941003634032


Mazanov J. Vale WADA, ave "World Sports Drug Agency". Performance Enhancement and Health, 2013;2(2):80–83. doi:10.1016/j.peh.2013.08.014


McNamee MJ, Phillips NC. Confidentiality, disclosure and doping in sports medicine. British J sports med. 2011;45:174–177.


Miach A. Genetically modified athlets. Biomedical ethics, gene doping and sport. Padstow; 2004.


Miller G. Behind the Olympic Ring. Lynn, Massachusetts: H. O. Zimman; 2004.


Mottram DR. A historical perspective of doping and anti-doping in sport. In: Mottram DR, editor. Drugs in Sport, 2011; p. 21.


Petroczi A, Aidman E. Psychological drivers of doping: The life-cycle model of performance enhancement. Substances Abuse Treatment, Prevention and Policy, 2008;3(7):20-25.


Pound R. Inside Olympic. Toronto: Jon Willey; 2004.


Pound R. Inside Olympic. Toronto: Jon Willey; 2004.


Rosenblum CA. Sport Nutrition. The American Dietic Association; 1999.


Savulescu J, Creaney L, Vondy A. Should athletes be allowed to use performance enhancing drugs? Brit. Med. J. 2013;347:f6150. doi:10.1136/bmj.f6150


Sigman SM. Are We All Dopes? A Behavior Law & Economics Approach to Legal Regulation of Doping in Sports. Marquette Sports Law Rev. 2008;19(1):126–208.


Smith ACT, Stewart B. Drug policy in sport: Hidden assumptions and inherent contradictions. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2008;27:123–129.


Stewart B, Smith ACT. Drug use in sport: Implications for public policy. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 2008;32(3):278–298.


Strelan P, Strelan P, Boeckmann RJ. Why drug testing in elite sport does not work: Perceptual deterrence theory and the role of personal moral beliefs. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 2006;36(12):2909–2934.


Strelan P, Boeckmann RJ. Why drug testing in elite sport does not work: Perceptual deterrence theory and the role of personal moral beliefs. J. of App. Social Psychology, 2006;36(12):2909–2934.


Striegel H, Ulrich R, Simon P. Randomized response estimates for doping and illicit drug use in elite athletes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2010;106 (2–3):230–232.


Thevis M, Schanzar W. Performance-Enhancing Drugs. In: Moughan RJ (ed.). Olympic Textbook of Science in Sport, International Olympic Committee; 2009. P. 285–303.


Tsitsimpikou C, Tsiokanos A, Tsarouhas K. Medication use by athletes at the Athens 2004 Summer Olympic Games. Clinical journal of sport medicine, 2009;19(1):33–38.


Voy R. Drugs, Sport and Politics. Champaign, Illinois: Leisure Press; 1991.


Waddington I. Sport, health and drugs: a critical sociological perspective. Taylor & Francis; 2000.


Wilmore JH. Physiologie du Sport. et de l’Exercice [Physiology of Sport and Exercise]. In: Wilmore JH, editor. Adaptations physiologiques à l’exercice physique [Physiological adaptations to exercise], De Boeck Université; 2009; 544 p. (in French)


World anti-doping code: Version 2. WADA; 2002.


World anti-doping code: Version 3. Copenhagen: Denmark; 5 March, 2003.


World anti-doping code. WADA; 2009.


World anti-doping code. WADA; 2015. [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2016 Nov 09]; Available from: https://wada-main-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/resources/files/wada-2015-world-anti-doping-code.pdf

Published
2016-12-11
How to Cite
1.
Platonov V. Doping in olympic sport: signs of the crisis and ways to overcome it. Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports. 2016;20(6):53-9. https://doi.org/10.15561/18189172.2016.0608
Section
Articles