THE EFFECT OF GLYCEMIC INDEX ON PLASMA IL-6 IN SUB-MAX EXERCISE
AbstractPurpose: This study examined the effect of a pre-exercise meal with different glycemic index (GI) on plasma IL-6 concentration and glucose metabolism during sub-max exercise (endurance performance run). Material : Ten men completed 1 h running at 70%-75% VO2max on a level treadmill on three occasions. In each trial, one of the three prescribed beverages as meal, i.e. high GI and low GL or placebo was consumed by the subjects 45 min before exercise. Blood samples were collected before, after, 1h and 24h after exercise. Result: Concentration of Plasma IL-6 in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups, IL-6 tended to significantly increase after exercise in groups (all P < 0.05), also there was significant difference for plasma IL-6 concentration between placebo and low glycemic groups in after exercise (P=.003) and 1hour after exercise (P=.005) . CK was significantly elevated at all- time points after exercise in 3 groups (all P < 0.05). Concentration of serum CK in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups but there not significantly. The consumption of the LGI beverage before exercise could minimize the increasing of plasma IL-6 concentration immediately after exercise and during the 1 h recovery period compared with the HGI beverage and Pla. Conclusion: This result suggested that the LGI beverage consumed as pre-exercise meal could modify the inflammatory response in prolonged exercise.
View Counter: Abstract | 72 | times, Article PDF |
Bishop N.C., Blannin A.K., Robson P.J. The effects of carbohydrate supplementation on immune responses to a soccer-specific exercise protocol. Journal of Sports Science, 1999, vol.17, pp. 787-796.
Bishop N.C., Walsh N.P., Haines D.L. Pre exercise carbohydrate status and immune responses to prolonged cycling. II. Effect on plasma cytokine concentration. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 2002, vol.11, pp. 503–512.
Bishop N.C., Walsh N.P., Haines D.L. Pre-exercise carbohydrate status and immune responses to prolonged cycling: I. Effect on neutrophil degranulation. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 2001, vol.11, pp. 490-503.
Cockburn E., Robson-Ansley P., Hayes P.R. Effect of milk volume consumed on the attenuation of exercise-induced muscle damage. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2011, vol.51, pp. 618-5.
DeMarco H.M., Sucher K.P., Cisar C.J. Pre-exercise carbohydrate meals: Application of glycemic index. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1999, vol.31, pp. 164–170.
Febbraio M.A., Steensberg A., Keller C. Glucose ingestion attenuates interleukin-6 release from contracting skeletal muscle in humans. Journal of Physiology, 2003, vol.549(Pt 2), pp. 607–612.
Foster C.D., Costill W., Fink M. Effects of pre-exercise feedings on endurance performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1979, vol.11, pp. 1-5.
Guezennec C.Y., Satabin P., Duforez F. The role of type and structure of complex carbohydrates response to physical exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 1993, vol.14, pp. 224–231.
Guezennec C.Y., Satabin P., Duforez F. Oxidation of corn starch, glucose and fructose ingested before exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1989, vol.21, pp. 45–50.
Kirwan J.P., O’Gorman D.J., Cyr-Campbell D. Effects of a moderate glycemic meal on exercise duration and substrate utilization. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 2001, vol.33, pp. 1517–1523.
Koivisto V.A., Karonen S.L. , Nikkila E.A. Carbohydrate ingestion before exercise: Comparison of glucose, fructose, and sweet placebo. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1981, vol.51, pp. 783–787.
Kuipers H., Fransen E.J., Keizer H.A. Pre-exercise ingestion of carbohydrate and transient hypoglycemia during exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 1999, vol.20, pp. 227–231.
Li T.L., Wu C.L., Gleeson M. The effects of preexercise high carbohydrate meals with different glycemic indices on blood leukocyte redistribution, IL-6, and hormonal responses during a subsequent prolonged exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 2004, vol.14, pp. 647–656.
Matthys P., Mitera T., Heremansl H. Anti-gamma interferon and anti-interleukin-6 antibodies affect staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced weight loss, hypoglycemia, and cytokine release in D-galactosamine-sensitized and unsensitized mice. Infection and Immunity, 1995, vol.63, pp. 1158–1164.
Miles M.P., Depner C.M. Kirwan R.D. Influence of macronutrient intake and anthropometric characteristics on plasma insulin after eccentric exercise. Metabolism: clinical and experimental, 2010, vol.59, pp. 1456-1464.
Miles M.P., Pearson S.D., Andring J.M. Effect of carbohydrate intake during recovery from eccentric exercise on interleukin-6 and muscle-damage markers. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 2007, vol.17, pp. 507–520.
Nehlsen-Cannarella S.L., Fagoaga O.R., Nieman D.C. Carbohydrate and the cytokine response to 2.5 h of running. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1997, vol.82, pp. 1662-1667.
Nieman D.C., Johanssen L., Lee J.W. Immune response to heavy exertion. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1998, vol.82, pp. 1385-1394.
Nieman D.C., Davis J.M., Henson D.A. Muscle cytokine mRNA changes after 2.5 h of cycling: influence of carbohydrate. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2004, vol.37, pp. 1283-1290.
Nieman D.C., Dumke C.L., Henson D.A. Muscle damage is linked to cytokine changes following a 160-km race. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 2006, vol.19, pp. 398-403.
Ostrowski K., Schjerling P., Pedersen B.K. Physical activity and plasma interleukin-6 in humans-effect of intensity of exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2000, vol.83, pp. 512-5.
Pedersen B.K., Febbraio M.A., Ullum H. Muscle as an endocrine organ: focus on muscle-derived interleukin-6. Physiology Review, 2008, vol.88, pp. 1379–1406.
Pittas A., Roberts S., Das S. The effects of the dietary glycemic load on type 2 diabetes risk factors during weight loss. Obesity, 2006, vol.65, pp. 2200-2209.
Steensberg A., Fischer C.P., Keller C. IL-6 enhances plasma IL-1ra, IL-10, and cortisol in humans. American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinal Metabolism, 2003, vol.285, pp. E433-E437.
Wee S.L., Williams C., Gray S. Influence of high and low glycemic index meals on endurance running capacity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1999, vol.31, pp. 393–399.
Copyright Holder - Author(s).
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: more