Problems of safety and risk in physical education




physical education, children, safety, risk


Purpose: One of the methodology issues in Physical Education is providing children with safety. The purpose of this work is to present basic concepts of safety at Physical Education classes. Material & Methods: The issues connected with safety at classes of Physical Education have been discussed in the subsections, each of which focuses on different concepts such as: legal safety regulations, causes of hazards, theoretical models of preventing hazards at P.E. classes, nutrition programs related to exercise’s fulfillment, prevention of heat disorders and dehydration. Results: According to experts’ opinion, the causes of safety hazards at P.E. classes can be divided into three groups: caused by instructor, caused by a student, and finally hazards technical in nature. The number of accidents during P.E. classes is still substantial, and among most common hazards there are the following: fractures of upper and lower limbs, dislocations, contusions, tendonitis, muscle tear and cuts. Curiously, boys experience such injuries more frequently than girls. Conclusions: Even though safety rules at Physical Education classes are defined by specific regulations, children’s absolute safety is never guaranteed. In order to diminish the number of misadventures, instructor is obliged not only to adhere to the norms but also to teach children to safety rules.


Download data is not yet available.


<p>Adams N. <i>Law and the Teacher Today</i>. London: Hutchinson; 1983.</p>

<p>American Academy of Pediatrics – AAP. Promotion of Healthy Weight-Control Practices in Young Athletes: Policy Statement. <i>Pediatrics</i>. 2005; 116(6): 1557-64.</p>

<p>Andriolo RB, El Bib RP, Ramos L, Atallah AN, da Silva, E.M. Aerobic exercise training programmes for improving physical and psychosocial health in adults with Down syndrome. <i>Cochrane Database Systematic Review</i>. 2010; 12(5): CD005176.</p>

<p>Armour KM, Jones RL. <i>Physical education teachers’ live and careers: P.E., sport and educational status</i>. London: Routledge; 1998.</p>

<p>Armstrong LE, Maresh CM. The Exertional Heat Illnesses: a Risk of Athletic Participation. <i>Medicine, Exercise, Nutrition &amp; Health</i>. 1993; 2: 125-34.</p>

<p>Arnett JJ. Developmental sources of crash risk in young drivers. <i>Injury Prevetion</i>. 2002; 8: 17-23.</p>

<p>Australian Institute of Health &amp; Welfare – AIHW. <i>Australian’s Health</i>. No. 9. <i>Australian Institute of Health &amp; Welfare</i>. Cat. No. AUS 44. Canbera: Author; 2004.</p>

<p>Baar P, Wubbels T. Machiavellianism in Children in Dutch Elementary Schools and Sport Clubs: Prevalence and Stability According to Context, Sport Type, and Gender. <i>The Sport Psychologist</i>. 2011; 25: 444-64.</p>

<p>Bailey R. <i>Teaching physical education – a handbook for primary and secondary teachers</i>. London: Kogan Page; 2001.</p>

<p>British Association of Advisers and Lecturers in Physical Education - BAALPE. <i>Safe Practice in Physical Education</i>. West Midlands: Dudley LEA; 1995.</p>

<p>Bryl W, Matuszak K, Hoffman K. Physical activity of children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities – a public health problem. <i>Hygeia Public Health</i>. 2013; 48(1): 1-5.</p>

<p>Buckley L, Sheehan M, Chapman R. The inclusion of first aid in an injury prevention curriculum program. In: Cuddihy TF, Brymaer E, editors. <i>Creating Active Futures</i>. Australia; Brisbane: School of Human Movement Studies, Queensland University of Technology; 2009. p. 3-11.</p>

<p>Burd NA, Jeukendrup A, Reid MB, Burke LM, Stear SJ, Castell LM. A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance. Part 26. <i>British Journal of Sports Medicine</i>. 2011;45: 1163-64.</p>

<p>Calderhead J, editor. <i>Exploring teacher’s thinking</i>. London: Cassell; 1987.</p>

<p>Capel S. <i>Learning to Teach Physical Education in the Secondary School: A Companion to School Experience</i>. London: Taylor &amp; Francis (Routlegde); 1997.</p>

<p>Capel S. <i>Learning to teach physical education in the secondary school: A companion to school experience. Learning to teach subjects in the secondary school series (3<sup>rd</sup> edition)</i>. London: Taylor &amp; Francis Routledge; 2002.</p>

<p>Caspersen CJ, Powell KE, Christenson GM. Physical Activity, Exercise and Physical Fitness: Definitions and Distinctions for Health-Related Research. <i>Public Health Reports</i>. 1985; 100(2): 126-131.</p>

<p>Chiodera P, Volta E, Gobbi G, Milioli MA, Mirandola P, Bonetti A, et al. Specifically designed physical exercise programs improve children’s motor abilities. <i>Scandinavian Journal of Medicine Science in Sports</i>. 2008; 18: 179-87.</p>

<p>Clark MJ, Enraght-Moony E, Balanda KP, Lynch M, Tigh T, FitzGerald G. Knowledge of national emergency telephone number and prevalence and characteristics of those trained in CPR in Queensland: Baseline information for targeted training interventions. <i>Resuscitation</i>. 2002; 53: 63-69.</p>

<p>Fragala-Pinkham A, Haley SM, Rabin J, Kharrasch VS. A fitness for children with disabilities. <i>Physical Therapy</i>. 2005; 85(11): 1182-200.</p>

<p>Frandkin AJ, Zazryn TR, Smoliga JM. Effects of warming-up on physical performance: a systematic review with meta-analysis. <i>Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research</i>. 2010; 24(1): 140-48.</p>

<p>Gisolfi CV, Duchman SM. Guidelines for optimal replacement beverages for different athletic events. <i>Medicine &amp; Science in Sports &amp; Exercise</i>. 1992; 24: 679-87.</p>

<p>Grabowski H. <i>Teoria Fizycznej Edukacji</i> [Theory of Physical Education]. Warszawa: WSiP; 1999 (in Polish)</p>

<p>Guajardo F, Warren B, Wang L. Self-Organizing: From Child’s Play to An Effective Wellness Program. <i>International Journal of Kinesiology &amp; Sports Sciences</i>. 2013; 1(1): 16-22.</p>

<p>Guivernau M, Duda JL. Moral Atmosphere and Athletic Tendencies in Young Soccer Players. <i>Journal of Moral Education</i>. 2002; 31(1): 67-85.</p>

<p>Haga M. Physical Fitness in Children With high Motor Competence is different from that in children With Low Motor Competence. <i>Physical Therapy</i>. 2009;89: 1089-97.</p>

<p>Hamilton M, Healy G, Dunstan D, Zderic T, Owen N. Too little exercise and too much sitting: inactivity physiology and the need for new recommendations on sedentary behavior. <i>Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports</i>. 2008; 2(4): 292-8.</p>

<p>Harris J. <i>Health-related exercise in the national curriculum key-stages 1 – 4</i>. United Kingdom; Leeds: Human Kinetics; 1990.</p>

<p>Hilland TA, Stratton G, Vinson D, Fairclough S. The physical Education Predisposition Scale: Preliminary development and validation. <i>Journal of Sport Sciences</i>. 2009; 27(14): 1555-63.</p>

<p>Hind E, Palmer C. A critical evaluation of the roles and responsibilities of the Physical Education teacher – perspectives of a student training to teach P.E. in primary schools. <i>Journal of Qualitative Research in Sports Studies</i>. 2007; 1(1): 1-9.</p>

<p>Honey P, Mumford A. <i>The manual learning styles</i>. United Kingdom; Berkshire: Peter Honey Publications Ltd; 1992.</p>

<p>Jeukendrup A, Brouns F, Wagenmakers AJM, Saris WHM. Carbohydrate-elyctrolyte feedings improve 1h time trial cycling performance. <i>International Journal of Sports Medicine</i>. 1997; 18, 125-129.</p>

<p>Jones AM, Haramizu S, Ranchordas M, Burke LM, Stear SJ, Castell L. M. A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance. Part 27. <i>British Journal of Sports Medicine</i>. 2011;45: 1246-48.</p>

<p>Kaciuba-Uściłko H, Nazar K. Dieta i metabolizm wysiłkowy [Diet and exercise metabolism]. <i>Medicina Sportiva</i>. 1999; 1(1): 19-29 (in Polish).</p>

<p>Karvonen J. Importance of warm up and cool down on exercise performance. <i>Medicine in Sports Training and Coaching; Medicine Sport Science</i>. 1992; 35: 189-214.</p>

<p>Kaufman LB, Schilling DL. Implementation of a strength Training Program for a 5-Year-Old Child with Poor Body Awareness and Development Coordination Disorder. <i>Physical Therapy</i>. 2007; 87(4): 455-67.</p>

<p>Klimczak J, Podstawski R, Dobosz D. The association of sport and violence, aggression and aggressiveness – prospects for education about non-aggression and reduction of aggressiveness. <i>Archives of Budo</i>. 2014; 10: 273-86.</p>

<p>Kołakowska I. Otyłość na ostrzu noża [Obesity on the edge]. <i>Uważam Rze</i>. 2012; 27(74): 92-93 (in Polish).</p>

<p>Kovacs EMR, Brouns F. Nutritional and physiological aspects of exercise – induced dehydration and rehydration. <i>Medicina Sportiva</i>. 1997; 1(1): 27-36.</p>

<p>Law RY, Herbert RD. Warm-up reduces delayed-onset muscle soreness but cool-down does not: a randomized controlled trial. <i>Australian Journal of Physiotherapy</i>. 2007; 53(2): 91-5.</p>

<p>Makarowski R. Aggressiveness in sport – measurement method. <i>Journal of Physical Education and Spor</i>t. 2013; 13(3): 278-82.</p>

<p>Martinez-Lopez E, Sanchez MZ, Alvarez MR, Cruz MT. Self-efficacy expectations in teacher trainees and the perceived role of schools and their physical education department in the educational treatment of overweight students. <i>European Physical Education Review</i>. 2001; 16(3): 251-66.</p>

<p>Maughan RJ, Burke LM. Practical nutrition recommendations for the athlete. In: Maughan RJ, Burke LM, editors. <i>Sports Nutrition: More Than Just Calories – Triggers for Adaptation </i>Switzerland: Nestec Ltd., Vevey and S. Karger AG, Basel; 2011. p. 131-149.</p>

<p>Mazur J, Wojnarowska, B. <i>Wypadki i urazy. Raport z badań wykonanych w 1998 r. Zdrowie Młodzieży Szkolnej w Polsce </i>[Accidents and injuries. A report on the research conducted in 1998. The Health of School Youth in Poland]. Warszawa: AWF; 1998. (in Polish)</p>

<p>Mosston M, Ashworth S. <i>Teaching physical education (5<sup>th</sup> edition)</i>. London: Benjamin Cummings; 2002.</p>

<p>National Electronic Injury Surveillance System – NEISS. <i>Injury statistics</i>. Washington, DC: Consumer Products Safety Commission; 2001.</p>

<p>Obama M. The First Lady speaks out. <i>Vibrant Life</i>. 2012; 28(5): 32-3.</p>

<p>Ogden CL, Carrol MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004, <i>Journal of American Medical Association</i>. 2006; 295: 1549-55.</p>

<p>Okasha A. The Declaration of Madrid and its implementation. An update. <i>World Psychiatry</i>. 2003; 2(2): 65-7.</p>

<p>Olszowski A. Bezpieczeństwo na zajęciach ruchowych [Safety during sport classes]. In: A. Maszczak A, editor. <i>Metodyka Wychowania Fizycznego </i>[The Methodology of Physical Education]. Warszawa: AWF Press; 1992. p. 161-173. (in Polish)</p>

<p>Orunaboka TT, Nwankwo GO. (2011) Safety Precautions in the Teaching of Adapted Physical Education in Primary and Post Primary Schools in Rivers State of Nigeria. <i>International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences</i>. 2011; 1(3): 119-26.</p>

<p>Osiński W. <i>Antropomotoryka </i>[Kinesiology]. Poznań: AWF; 2003. (in Polish)</p>

<p>Ostrowska M. Przedmiotowe uwarunkowania wypadkowości szkolnej [Subject determinants of school accidents]. <i>Wychowanie Fizyczne i Zdrowotne</i>. 2005; 4: 12-5. (in Polish)</p>

<p>Ostrowska M. Wypalenie zawodowe nauczycieli wychowania fizycznego a wypadkowość szkolna [Burnout of physical education teachers and school accidents]. <i>Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Pedagogiki i Administracji w Poznaniu</i>. 2007; 3: 15-22. (in Polish)</p>

<p>Osuch M. <i>Zapewnić dzieciom bezpieczeństwo</i> [To guarantee safety to children] [document on the Internet]; 2015. p. 4-19. Available from: (in Polish)</p>

<p>Podstawski R. Odżywianie i dozwolone wspomaganie młodych tenisistów w różnych cyklach treningowo-startowych [Nutrition and dietary supplements for junior tennis players in different training and tournament cycles]. In: Krolak A, Zieliński J, editors. <i>Tenis XXI Wieku </i>Studia i Mografie, vol I. Pruszków: WSKFiT im. Haliny Konopackiej w Pruszkowie: 2005. p. 161-176. (in Polish)</p>

<p>Podstawski R, Kasietczuk B, Boraczyński T, Boraczyński M, Choszcz D. Relationship Between BMI and Endurance-Strength Abilities Assessed by the 3 Minute Burpee Test. <i>International Journal of Sports Science</i>. 2013; 3(1): 28-35.</p>

<p>Przewęda R. Zmiany kondycji fizycznej polskiej młodzieży w ciągu ostatnich dekad [The changes in physical condition of Polish youth in the last decades]. <i>Studia Ecologiae et Bioethicae</i>. 2009; 7(1): 57-71. (in Polish)</p>

<p>Raczek J. <i>Antropomotoryka. Teoria motoryczności człowieka w zarysie</i> [Kinesiology. Outline of the theory of human motor control]. Warszawa: PZWL Press; 2010. (in Polish)</p>

<p>Raymond C. <i>Coordinating physical education across the primary school. The subject leader’s handbook</i>. New York: Routledge; 1998.</p>

<p>Rozporządzenie Ministra Edukacji Narodowej i Sportu z dnia 31 grudnia 2002 roku w sprawie bezpieczeństwa i higieny w miejscach publicznych i niepublicznych szkołach i placówkach Dziennik Ustaw nr 6 z 2003 poz.69 paragraf 2 [Regulation of the Minister of National Education and Sport of 31<sup>st</sup> December 2002 on Safety and Hygiene in Public Places and in Non-Public Schools and Institutions], <i>Polish Journal of Laws</i>. 2003;6(69, sec. 2):10-12. (in Polish)</p>

<p>Sawińska E. <i>Bezpieczeństwo w Szkolnym wychowaniu fizycznym </i>[School Physical Education safety] [document on the internet]; 2015 [cited 2015 May 17]. Available from: from: (in Polish)</p>

<p>Severs J. <i>Safety and risk in primary school Physical Education – a guide for teachers</i>. London: Routledge; 2003.</p>

<p>Straight CS, Dorfman LR, Cottel KE, Krol JM, Lofgren IE, Delmonico, MJ. Effect of Resistance Training and Dietary Changes on Physical Function and Body Composition in Overweight and Obese Older Adults. <i>Journal of Physical Activity and Health</i>. 2012; 9: 875-83.</p>

<p>Szyguła Z. The prevention of heat exhaustion and dehydration among athletes. <i>Medicina Sportiva</i>. 2004; 5(1): 19-27.</p>

<p>Tatarczuk J. Bezpieczeństwo ćwiczących na zajęciach wychowania fizycznego i sportu (Safety of participants during Physical Education and sport classes). In: Tatarczuk J, editor. <i>Wybrane zagadnienia z metodyki wychowania fizycznego</i> [Selected issues on the methodology of Physical Education]. Zielona Góra: ZPWSP w Zielonej Górze; 1991. p. 80-89. (in Polish)</p>

<p>Trzaskoma, Z. The use of pendular trainer in increasing the strength and speed abilities of human lower limbs. <i>Biology of Sport</i>. 1994; 11( 6): 1-119.</p>

<p>Trzaskoma Z. The use of pendular trainer in increasing the strength and speed abilities of human lower limbs. <i>Wychowanie Fizyczne i Sport</i>. 1998; 2: 39-51. (in Polish)</p>

<p>Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. <i>Definition of the Safety</i> [document on the internet]; 2015 [cited 2015 Jul 23]. Available from:</p>

<p>Williams MH. <i>The ergogenic edge: pushing the limits of sports performance</i>. USA; Champaign: Human Kinetics Publisher; 1998.</p>




How to Cite

Podstawski R, Zwolinska D, Nowosielska-Swadzba D. Problems of safety and risk in physical education. Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports. 2015;19(10):82-9.

Abstract views: 2645 / PDF downloads: 354

Most read articles by the same author(s)