Causal attributions for success and failure among athletes: Validation of the Croatian version of the revised Causal dimension scale (CDS-II)

Keywords: reasons, achievement, competition, performance, causal attributions


Background and Study Aim. Researchers since the late 1970s have been interested in finding out the reasons attributed to outcomes. To facilitate attribution research in Croatia we translated and validated The Revised Causal Dimension Scale (CDS-II) and examined its invariance when attributing most and least successful competition performances. Materials and methods. To achieve our stated aim, 384 kinesiology students completed the translated CDS-II. To test the latent structure of the questionnaire, we used CFA and tested two alternative models (orthogonal solution and model with correlated latent variables). Additionally, we examined the CDS-II invariance when attributing the most and the least successful competition performance in sport using longitudinal CFA. The reliability was tested using Cronbach alpha coefficients. Lastly, we tested differences in latent means between most and least successful performance using pairwise t-test. Results. Similar to the originally published findings, CFA indicated the CDS-II structure with correlated latent variables had an adequate and better fit than the orthogonal solution in both situations. Furthermore, we confirmed configural, metric and scalar invariance, as well as partial strict invariance since one item’s residuals differed significantly from the others. Cronbach alpha coefficients were adequate across both situations. Lastly, athletes attributed their most successful performances to more internal, stable and controllable reasons than their least successful performances. Conclusions. We confirmed that the Croatian version of the CDS-II has adequate psychometric properties and is therefore suitable for research in sport situations.


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Author Biographies

Rebeka Prosoli, University of Zagreb; Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb; Zagreb, Croatia.
Benjamin Banai, Banai Analitika; Banai Analitika; Zagreb, Croatia.
Renata Barić, University of Zagreb; Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb; Zagreb, Croatia.
Marc Lochbaum, Texas Tech University; Department of Kinesiology and Sport Management, Texas Tech University, USA Education Academy, Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania.
Sydney Cooper, Texas Tech University; Honors College, Texas Tech University; USA.
Margareta Jelić, University of Zagreb; Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb; Zagreb, Croatia.


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How to Cite
Prosoli R, Banai B, Barić R, Lochbaum M, Cooper S, Jelić M. Causal attributions for success and failure among athletes: Validation of the Croatian version of the revised Causal dimension scale (CDS-II). Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports. 2021;25(4):244-52.