Acute effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching, massage and combine protocols on flexibility, vertical jump and hand grip strength performance in kickboxers

Keywords: active warm up, combat sports, exercise, jogging, passive warm-up


Background and Study Aim. Strength, power and flexibility are among the features that provide advantage against the opponent in kick boxers. There are many factors that can affect the development of these parameters in a positive and negative way before the competition. These factors may differ according to the type and intensity of warm-up and stretching exercises, depending on psychological and physiological conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching, massage, PNF+massage on flexibility, vertical jump and hand grip strength performance in kickboxers. Materials and Methods. The sample group of the study consisted of 12 men (age: 18.50 ± 0.97 years, height: 161.60 ± 4.47 cm, body weight: 62.20 ± 9.07 kg, BMI: 23.77 ± 2.63), who did kick-box regularly for at least 3 years. This group performed 4 different stretching and warm up protocols on non-consecutive days. Warm up and stretching protocols were determined as follows: light jogging for only 5 minutes (NSM), PNF stretching (PNF), massage (M), PNF stretching+massage (PNF+M). After warm up and stretching protocols, participants completed vertical jump, flexibility and hand grip strength Results. There was a significant improvement on flexibility performance in order from low to high respectively NSM, PNF, PNF+M, M. Moreover, there was a significant difference between NSM and PNF, NSM and M, NSM and PNF+M in flexibility (p<.05). There was a significant difference between PNF and PNF+M, M and PNF+M in favour of PNF+M in vertical jump (p<.05). There was a significant decrease in right- and left-hand grip strength for all protocols. Conclusion. As a result of the study, PNF and massage can be recommended to kickboxers before flexibility performance. However, PNF and massage are not recommended before activities that affect the lower extremity, such as strength and vertical jump.


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Author Biographies

Özgür Eken, İnönü University; Faculty of Sport Sciences, Department of Physical Education and Sport Teaching, Inonu University, Malatya, Turkey.
Ramazan Bayer, Turgut Ozal University; Turgut Ozal University, Malatya, Turkey.


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How to Cite
Eken Özgür, Bayer R. Acute effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching, massage and combine protocols on flexibility, vertical jump and hand grip strength performance in kickboxers. Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports. 2021;26(1):4-2.