The effect of the 12-week judo physical activity program on the self-esteem of secondary school students during the COVID-19 period

Keywords: regular exercise, judo, physical activity, self-esteem, student

Abstract

Background and Study Aim. During the COVID-19 period, participation in physical activity decreased, and at the same time, many psychological problems occurred in children and adolescents. Therefore, this study examines the impact of secondary school students’ participation in regular exercise on their self-esteem. Material and Methods. The research was carried out with an experimental method and sequential design. The study, carried out in 2 sessions, started with the first measurement in November 2021 and ended with the last measurement in January 2022. 46 volunteer students forming the study sample were divided into experimental and control groups. Students in both groups completed the ‘Personal Information Form’ and the ‘Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory’ in the first week and the end of the 12th week. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 17.0 was used for data analysis. First, a descriptive statistical test was conducted to indicate the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Then, normality tests (Skewness and Kurtosis) were applied to determine whether the data showed normal distribution, and it was determined that the data showed normal distribution. Finally, the independent sample t-test and Paired Samples t-test were applied because the data met the assumption of normal distribution. The significance level was determined as p<0.05. Results. A statistically significant difference was found between the self-esteem values of the experimental group before the physical activity program and after the exercise sessions. There was no significant difference in the self-esteem levels of the control group pre-test and post-test. Conclusions. In conclusion, this study reveals that participation in 12 weeks of regular exercise significantly increases middle school students’ self-esteem.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

View Counter: Abstract | 126 | times, Article PDF |

Author Biographies

Engin Efek, Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University
enginefek@gmail.com; Faculty of Sports Sciences, Department of Physical Education and Sports Education, Department of Psycho-Social Areas in Sports, Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University; 15030 Burdur, Turkey.
Hakan Eryiğit, Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University
heryigit@mehmetakif.edu.tr; Tefenni Vocational School, Department of Management and Organization, Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University; 15030 Burdur, Turkey.

References

1. Chang M, Bang H, Kim S, Nam-Speers J. Do sports help students stay away from misbehavior, suspension, or dropout?. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 2021; 70;101066.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2021.101066

2. Graupensperger J, Sutcliffe SA. Vella Prospective associations between sport participation and indices of mental health across adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 2021; 50:1450–1463.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-021-01416-0

3. WHO. [Internet] Geneva: Media centre; [cited 2022 Jan 2]. Physical activity, Fact sheet. 2020. Available from: http://www.who.int/en/

4. Howard J, Huang A, Li Z, Tufekci Z, Zdimal V, van der Westhuizen HM, et al. An evidence review of face masks against COVID-19. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2021; 118(4): 1–12.
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2014564118

5. Scheid JL, Lupien SP, Ford GS, West SL. Commentary: Physiological and psychological impact of face mask usage during the Covid-19 pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2020; 17: 1–12.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186655

6. Horesh D, Brown AD. Traumatic stress in the age of COVID-19: A call to close critical gaps and adapt to new realities. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 2020; 12(4):331–335.
https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000592

7. Qiu J, Shen B, Zhao M, Whang Z, Xie B, Xu Y. A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations. General Psychiatry, 2020; 33(2):1–3.
https://doi.org/10.1136/gpsych-2020-100213

8. Öner C, Baysan Arabacı L. Psychological endurance and self-esteem in adolescents with chronic mental or physical illness in their parent. İzmir Katip Çelebi University Faculty of Health Science Journal, 2021; 6(3):101-107.

9. Biddle S. Physical activity and mental health: evidence is growing. World Psychiatry. 2016;15(2): 176–177.
https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20331

10. Spruit A, Assink M, Van Vugt E, Van der Put C, Stams GJ. The effects of physical activity interventions on psychosocial outcomes in adolescents: A meta-analytic review. Clin. Psychol. Rev., 2016; 45:56–71.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2016.03.006

11. White MA, Whittaker SD, Gores AM, Allswede D. Evaluation of a self-care intervention to improve student mental health administered through a distance-learning course. Am. J. Health Educ., 2019; 50:213–224.
https://doi.org/10.1080/19325037.2019.1616012

12. Atasoy T, Pekel A. The relationship between physical education teachers' professional self-esteem and their attitudes towards mentally handicapped children. Journal of Kafkas University Sport Sciences, 2021; 1 (1):51–62.

13. Ceylan B, Günay Molu N, Yener Özcan F, Özcan A, Usta A. The effect of assertiveness skills training on self-esteem and internalized stigmatization of chronic psychiatric patients. Journal of Anatolian Nursing and Health Sciences, 2021; 24(2): 167–174.
https://doi.org/10.17049/ataunihem.630219

14. Toy AB, Toros T, Gündoğan U, Öğraş E, Cetın M. Examining the relationship between hearing impaired wrestlers and hearing impaired sedentary individuals' self-esteem and life satisfaction in terms of certain. Journal of Sportive, 2020; 3 (2):48–61.

15. Uca M, Çoban Ü. Investigation of hearing impaired handball players' self-esteem symptom levels: a case study. Turkish Studies, 2021; 16(3):1075–1085.
https://doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.49758

16. Kaminsky LA, Dewey D. The association between body mass index and physical activity, and body image, self esteem and social support in adolescents with type 1 diabetes can. J. Diabetes, 2014; 38:244–249.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjd.2014.04.005

17. Ekeland E, Heian F, Hagen KB, Abbott J, Nordheim L. Exercise to improve self-esteem in children and young people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2004; 1: CD003683.
https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003683.pub2

18. Ekeland E, Heian F, Coren E. Can exercise improve self esteem in children and young people? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Br J Sports Med, 2005; 39:792–798.
https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2004.017707

19. Yiğiter K. Investigation of the problem-solving skill, self-esteem and preferences of university students regarding sport and social activity in Turkey. International Journal of Academic Research, 2013; 5:220–226.
https://doi.org/10.7813/2075-4124.2013/5-4/B.33

20. Yiğiter K, Bayazıt B. Impact of the recreational physical activities on university students’ problem-solving skills and self-esteem in Turkey. European Online Journal of Natural And Social Sciences, 2013; 2(3):424–429.

21. Biddle SJ, Asare M. Physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents: a review of reviews. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2011; 45(11):886–895.
https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2011-090185

22. Ouyang Y, Wang K, Zhang T, Peng L, Song G, Luo J. The influence of sports participation on body image, self-efficacy, and self-esteem in college students. Front. Psychol, 2020; 10:3039.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.03039

23. Mousavi Gilani SR, Dashipour A. The effects of physical activity on self-esteem: a comparative study. Int J High Risk Behav Addict, 2017; 6(1): e35955.
https://doi.org/10.5812/ijhrba.35955

24. Coopersmith S. Self-esteem inventories. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press; 1967.

25. Turan N, Tufan B. A validity and reliability study on the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. XIII. National Congress of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 14 – 18 September 1987; Istanbul; 1987. P. 100-107.

26. You S, Shin K, Kim AY. Body image, self-esteem, and depression in Korean adolescents. Child Ind Res, 2017; 10: 231–245.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-016-9385-z

27. Ilkım M, Özoğlu F, Şimşek E, Keskin MT. Evaluation of happiness and self-esteem levels of individuals with down syndrome who participated in a regular physical activity by parents (the example of Malatya province). Journal of ROL Sports Science, 2021; 2(2):65–71.
https://doi.org/10.29228/roljournal.49921

28. Barton J, Griffin M, Pretty J. Exercise-, nature- and socially interactive-based initiatives improve mood and self-esteem in the clinical population. Perspectives in Public Health, 2012; 132(2):89–96.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1757913910393862

29. Legrand FD. Effects of exercise on physical self-concept, global self-esteem, and depression in women of low socio-economic status with elevated depressive symptoms. Journal of sport & exercise psychology, 2014; 36(4):357–365.
https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2013-0253

30. Walters S, Martin JE. Does aerobic exercise really enhance self-esteem in children? A prospective evaluation in 3rd-5th graders. J Sport Behav, 2000; 23(1): 51–60.

31. Stiffman, AR, Orme JG, Evans DA, Keeney PA. A brief measure of children’s behavior problems: The Behavior Rating Index for Children. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 1984; 17(2):83–90.
https://doi.org/10.1080/07481756.1984.12022751

32. Zamani Sani SH, Fathirezaie Z, Brand S, Pühse U, Holsboer-Trachsler E, Gerber M, Talepasand S. Physical activity and self-esteem: testing direct and indirect relationships associated with psychological and physical mechanisms. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 2016; 12:2617–2625.
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S116811

33. Liu M, Wu L, Ming Q. How does physical activity ıntervention ımprove self-esteem and self-concept in children and adolescents? evidence from a meta-analysis. PloS one, 2015; 10(8): e0134804.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134804
Published
2022-06-30
How to Cite
1.
Efek E, Eryiğit H. The effect of the 12-week judo physical activity program on the self-esteem of secondary school students during the COVID-19 period. Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports. 2022;26(3):182-7. https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2022.0306
Section
Articles