The different influence of speed, agility and aerobic capacity toward soccer skills of youth player

Keywords: football skills, speed, agility, aerobic fitness


Background and Study Aim. The significant influence of speed, agility and aerobic fitness on youth soccer performance is described by current football literature. The sensitive phases of age development of students have been stated to have a different influence compared to professional players. The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of speed, agility and aerobic fitness on soccer skills to the Student Activity Units (UKM) of Football. Material and Methods. The method used in the correlation research study is a descriptive-quantitative with a cross-sectional approach. The population study was all 35 members of UKM football players and the sample was selected through purposive methods sampling. Furthermore, the instruments to be applied are (1) speed with 30 meters sprint test; (2) agility through a 5-meters shuttle run; (3) aerobic endurance by using the 20m Beep-test protocol; (4) soccer skill using David Lee’s test. The SPSS 28 program was used for the statistical operations in the analytical data technique, followed by prerequisite analysis tests, namely the normality test and homogeneity test, as well as a hypothesis test to confirm the hypothesis. Results. The result shows that there is a correlation in positive values between both the independent and dependent variables. Statistical analysis confirms that there is a correlation and positive impact of speed, agility and aerobic capacity of football skills. Significant differences in correlations were found in the speed, agility and aerobic capacity of the participants (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Physical activity based on the anaerobic system has a positive effect on individual skills. In contrast, aerobic capacity plays a role more in the complex skills of football games in real situations.


Download data is not yet available.

View Counter: Abstract | 76 | times, Article PDF |

Author Biographies

Komarudin Komarudin, State University of Yogyakarta; State University of Yogyakarta; Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Suharjana Suharjana, State University of Yogyakarta; State University of Yogyakarta; Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Yudanto Yudanto, State University of Yogyakarta; State University of Yogyakarta; Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Moh Nanang Himawan Kusuma, University of Jenderal Soedirman; University of Jenderal Soedirman; Purwokerto, Indonesia.


1. Turna B, Alp M. The Effects of Functional Training on Some Biomotor Abilities and Physiological Characteristics in Elite Soccer Players. Journal of Education and Learning. 2020;9(1): 164.

2. Effendi H. Peranan Psikologi Olahraga Dalam Meningkatkan Prestasi Atlet [The Role of Sports Psychology in Improving Athlete Achievement]. Nusant (Jurnal Ilmu Pengetah Sos), 2016. (In Indonesian).

3. Kusuma MNH. Effect of cold water and contrast immersion on physiological and psychological responses of elite athletes after high-intensity exercises. J Phys Educ Sport. 2021;21(6):3278–87.

4. Turna B. The Effects of 6-Week Core Training on Selected Biomotor Abilities in Soccer Players. Journal of Education and Learning. 2020;9(1): 99.

5. Guntoro TS, Muhammad J. Faktor kemampuan fisik dan psikologis penunjang keterampilan atlet elit sepakbola Propinsi Papua. J Sport J Penelit Pembelajaran. 2020;6(2):390–406.

6. The Effect of Functional Exercises in Some Biomotor Abilities and Metabolism Rate for Volleyball Young Players. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology. 2020.

7. Kusuma; MNH, Budi DR, Syafei M. The Effect of Nutritional Status, Level of Physical Activity and Hemoglobins on Physical Endurance. JUARA J Olahraga. 2019.

8. Yarsiasat J, Sumannont S, Manimmanakorn N, Srilamarth S. Effectiveness of the Prevent Injury Enhance Performance (PEP) training program in reducing injury incidence rates among adolescent female SEPAK takraw players: A randomised controlled trial. J Med Assoc Thail. 2019.

9. Suraci BR, Quigley C, Thelwell RC, Milligan GS. A Comparison of Training Modality and Total Genotype Scores to Enhance Sport-Specific Biomotor Abilities in Under 19 Male Soccer Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2021;35(1): 154–161.

10. Junaidi J. Biomotor Ability Profile of Indonesian Male Rugby Athletes for Asian Games 2018. In: Proceedings of the International Seminar on Public Health and Education 2018 (ISPHE 2018). Ungaran, Indonesia: Atlantis Press; 2018.

11. Bilge M, Deliceoglu G, Simsek B. The effects of training frequency on development of some biomotor abilities in children. International Journal of Academic Research. 2014;6(2): 57–61.

12. Kusuma MNH. Efek minuman berbasis alkali terhadap kadar laktat darah dan denyut nadi istirahat setelah aktivitas fisik intensitas tinggi pada pemain sepak bola [Effects of alkaline-based drinks on blood lactate levels and resting pulse rate after high-intensity physical activity in soccer players]. Jurnal SPORTIF : Jurnal Penelitian Pembelajaran, 2020;6(2): 348–363. (In Indonesian).

13. Ré AHN, Cattuzzo MT, Henrique R dos S, Stodden DF. Physical characteristics that predict involvement with the ball in recreational youth soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences, 2016;34(18): 1716–1722.

14. van de Hoef PA, Brauers JJ, van Smeden M, Backx FJG, Brink MS. The Effects of Lower-Extremity Plyometric Training on Soccer-Specific Outcomes in Adult Male Soccer Players: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2020;15(1): 3–17.

15. Torreblanca-Martínez V, Nevado-Garrosa F, Otero-Saborido FM, Gonzalez-Jurado JA. Effects of fatigue induced by repeated-sprint on kicking accuracy and velocity in female soccer players. Marocolo M (ed.) PLOS ONE. 2020;15(1): e0227214.

16. Al Ameer A, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Physical Education Department, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Impact of Plyometric and Resistance Training on Selected Fitness Variables among University Soccer Playing Adults. Annals of Applied Sport Science, 2020;8(3): 10–20.

17. Abdelkader G, Arguz A, Himawan Kusuma MN, Erkmen N, Calişkan O, Madani R. Kinematical characteristics of accurate penalty-kicking for Turkish football players in goalkeeper confrontation. Acta Kinesiol. 2021;(N2 2021):112–9.

18. Burhan Z. Pengaruh latihan small sided games 6 vs 6 dan 7 vs 7 terhadap kecepatan, kelincahan dan keterampilan dribbling pada siswa ekstrakurikuler sepakbola smpn 1 pujut lombok tengah [The effect of small sided games 6 vs 6 and 7 vs 7 on speed, agility and dribbling skills on soccer extracurricular students at SMPN 1 Pujut, Central Lombok]. Jurnal Ilmiah Mandala Education. 2021;7(3). (In Indonesian).

19. Hammami MA, Ben Klifa W, Ben Ayed K, Mekni R, Saeidi A, Jan J, et al. Physical performances and anthropometric characteristics of young elite North-African female soccer players compared with international standards. Science & Sports. 2020;35(2): 67–74.

20. Arifin R, Warni H. Model latihan kelincahan sepakbola [Football agility training model]. Multilateral Jurnal Pendidikan Jasmani dan Olahraga, 2019;17(2). (In Indonesian).

21. Hamzah. Hubungan Antara Kelincahan Dengan Kemampuan Dribbling Dalam Permainan Sepakbola Di Klub SSB Gemilang [The Relationship Between Agility And Dribbling Ability In Football Games At SSB Gemilang Club]. J Olahraga Indragi. 2019. (In Indonesian).

22. Ridwan A, Hasyim H. Kontribusi keseimbangan dan kelincahan dengan kemampuan menggiring bola dalam permainan sepakbola pada siswa smp negeri 33 kepulauan selayar [Contribution of balance and agility to the ability to dribble in football games for junior high school students in 33 Selayar Islands]. COMPETITOR: Jurnal Pendidikan Kepelatihan Olahraga, 2020;10(2): 46. (In Indonesian).

23. Naser N, Ali A, Macadam P. Physical and physiological demands of futsal. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness. 2017;15(2): 76–80.

24. Sumerta IK, Santika IGPNA, Dei A, Prananta IGNAC, Artawan IKS, Sudiarta IGN. Pengaruh Pelatihan Circuit Training Terhadap Kelincahan Atlet Sepakbola [The Effect of Circuit Training on Football Athletes' Agility]. J Pendidik Kesehat Rekreasi. 2021;7(1):230–8. (In Indonesian).

25. Prathap S, Nagel BJ, Herting MM. Understanding the role of aerobic fitness, spatial learning, and hippocampal subfields in adolescent males. Scientific Reports, 2021;11(1): 9311.

26. Armstrong N, Welsman J. Clarity and Confusion in the Development of Youth Aerobic Fitness. Frontiers in Physiology, 2019;10: 979.

27. Clarkson BG, Culvin A, Pope S, Parry KD. Covid-19: Reflections on threat and uncertainty for the future of elite women’s football in England. Managing Sport and Leisure, 2022;27(1–2): 50–61.

28. Grashow RG, Roberts AL, Zafonte R, Pascual-Leone A, Taylor H, Baggish A, et al. Defining Exposures in Professional Football: Professional American-Style Football Players as an Occupational Cohort. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 2019;7(2): 232596711982921.

29. Hammerschmidt J, Durst S, Kraus S, Puumalainen K. Professional football clubs and empirical evidence from the COVID-19 crisis: Time for sport entrepreneurship? Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 2021;165: 120572.

30. Elia J, Khaddage-Soboh N, Chahine L, Hamieh M, Kassem Y. Motivations and barriers that impact Lebanese Athletes’ achievements at the Olympics. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 2020;28(2): 333–364.

31. Ramirez-Campillo R, Alvarez C, Gentil P, Moran J, García-Pinillos F, Alonso-Martínez AM, et al. Inter-individual Variability in Responses to 7 Weeks of Plyometric Jump Training in Male Youth Soccer Players. Frontiers in Physiology. 2018;9: 1156.

32. Hoffman JR. NSCA’s Guide to Program Design. NSCA; 2012.

33. Fernández-Rio J, Cecchini JA, Méndez-Giménez A. Does Context, Practice or Competition Affect Female Athletes’ Achievement Goal Dominance, Goal Pursuit, Burnout and Motivation? Journal of Human Kinetics, 2017;59(1): 91–105.

34. Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, Hanin J. Progressive Statistics for Studies in Sports Medicine and Exercise Science. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2009;41(1): 3–12.

35. Mukaka MM. Statistics corner: A guide to appropriate use of correlation coefficient in medical research. Malawi Med J. 2012;24(3):69–71.

36. Chmura P, Van Gent MM, Rokita A, Chmura J. Assessment of sprinting skill of soccer players based on straight and zig-zag sprint tests. South African J Res Sport Phys Educ Recreat. 2018;40(1):23–29.

37. Rodríguez-Fernández A, Sanchez-Sanchez J, Ramirez-Campillo R, Nakamura FY, Rodríguez-Marroyo JA, Villa-Vicente JG. Relationship Between Repeated Sprint Ability, Aerobic Capacity, Intermittent Endurance, and Heart Rate Recovery in Youth Soccer Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2019;33(12): 3406–3413.

38. Gabryś T, Stec K, Michalski C, Pilis W, Pilis K, Witkowski Z. Diagnostic value of Beep and Yo-Yo tests in assessing physical performance of female soccer players. Biomedical Human Kinetics, 2019;11(1): 110–114.

39. Bekris E, Kounalakis S, Ispirlidis I, Katis A. Evaluation of ball passing and space detection skill in soccer: implementation of two new soccer tests. Research in Sports Medicine, 2020;28(4): 518–528.

40. Morse A, McEvoy C. Qualitative Research in Sport Management: Case Study as a Methodological Approach. Qual Rep. 2014.

41. Meredith SJ, Dicks M, Noel B, Wagstaff CRD. A review of behavioural measures and research methodology in sport and exercise psychology. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2018;11(1): 25–46.

42. Wilson R. Research methodology for youth sport. In: Youth Sport in Australia; 2021.
43. Pascual Verdú N, Orbea Palacios JÁ, Martínez Carbonell JA, Jove Tossi M. Analysis of physical and physiological requirements in soccer trainings in young soccer players (under -10 years). Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 2015;10(2).

44. Nanang Himawan Kusuma M. Mathematical simulation approach to diagnose performance limiting factor of shot put technique. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2021;1778(1): 012038.

45. Nanang M, Fuad N, Didik R, Topo S, Panuwun J. Effect of Alkaline Fluids to Blood pH and Lactic Acid Changes on Sub Maximal Physical Exercise. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2018;197: 012049.

46. Rivera Joven AS, Roa Peralta LS, Sánchez Rojas IA, Mendoza D. Profile of physical condition of university soccer players who train at moderate altitude. MHSalud: Revista en Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Salud. 2020;17(2): 1–14.

47. Pereira LA, Freitas TT, Pivetti B, Alcaraz PE, Jeffreys I, Loturco I. Short-Term Detraining Does Not Impair Strength, Speed, and Power Performance in Elite Young Soccer Players. Sports, 2020;8(11): 141.

48. Cossio-Bolaños M, Vidal-Espinoza R, Urra Albornoz C, Leite Portella D, Vega-Novoa S, Mendez-Cornejo J, et al. A systematic review of intervention programs that produced changes in speed and explosive strength in youth footballers. European Journal of Translational Myology, 2021;31(3).

49. Haro YEP, Cerón RJC. Plyometrics and its impact on the speed and speed-strength of female soccer players. Rev Cubana Invest Bioméd. 2019;38(2):182-194.

50. Šimonek J, Horička P, Hianik J. The differences in acceleration, maximal speed and agility between soccer, basketball, volleyball and handball players. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 2017;12(1).

51. Abarghoueinejad M, Barreira D, Dias C, Guimarães E, Baxter-Jones ADG, Maia J. Body Physique, Body Composition, Physical Performance, Technical and Tactical Skills, Psychological Development, and Club Characteristics of Young Male Portuguese Soccer Players: The INEX Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2021;18(7): 3560.

52. Andrašić S, Gušić M, Stanković M, Mačak D, Bradić A, Sporiš G, et al. Speed, Change of Direction Speed and Reactive Agility in Adolescent Soccer Players: Age Related Differences. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2021;18(11): 5883.

53. Altmann S, Neumann R, Härtel S, Kurz G, Stein T, Woll A. Agility testing in amateur soccer: A pilot study of selected physical and perceptual-cognitive contributions. Boullosa D (ed.) PLOS ONE, 2021;16(6): e0253819.

54. Suhartoyo T, Kusuma MNH, Budi DR, Listiandi AD. Biomechanical based aerobic and anaerobic exercises analysis. J Sport J Penelit Pembelajaran. 2020;6(1):145-156.

55. Kusuma MNH. Biomekanika olahraga [Sports biomechanics]. Unsoed Press; 2019. (In Indonesian).

56. Manouras N, Papanikolaou Z, Karatrantou K, Kouvarakis P, Gerodimos V. The efficacy of vertical vs. horizontal plyometric training on speed, jumping performance and agility in soccer players. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 2016;11(5): 702–709.

57. Ade JD, Drust B, Morgan OJ, Bradley PS. Physiological characteristics and acute fatigue associated with position-specific speed endurance soccer drills: production vs maintenance training. Science and Medicine in Football, 2021;5(1): 6–17.

58. Widanita N, Kusuma MNH, Budi D, Suhartoyo T, Listiandi AD, Anggraeni D, et al. The effectiveness of pilates training model towards bmi and muscle mass for overweight women. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 2019;22(11): 39–45.

59. Mohr M, Krustrup P, Bangsbo J. Fatigue in soccer: A brief review. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2005;23(6): 593–599.
How to Cite
Komarudin K, Suharjana S, Yudanto Y, Kusuma MNH. The different influence of speed, agility and aerobic capacity toward soccer skills of youth player. Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports. 2022;26(6):381-90.