The effects of massed and distributed drills, muscle strength, and intelligence quotients towards tennis groundstroke skills of sport students




massed, distributed, arm strength, intelligence quotient, tennis


Background and Study Aim. Basic forehand and backhand technical skills are the main requirements that must be mastered in playing tennis. Physical condition and intellectual intelligence were found to be the factors that affect the quality of tennis. On the other hand, limited learning time, and the number of teaching staff and facilities are classic challenges in the implementation of learning. This study describes the different effects of massed and distributed exercise, arm strength, and intellectual on the forehand and backhand skills of sports students. Material and Methods. A quasi-experimental method with two group pretest and posttest design approached the 64 volunteers of male sports students (age 19.3±1.7, BMI 20.17±1.47), who had attended the tennis course. The sample is divided into 2 groups of Massed Practices (MP) and Distributed Practices (DP) according to the score of the upper-arm strength and intelligence test. The anthropometrics were evaluated through digital microtome stature, the arm strength was evaluated with a push-up test and the kinesthetic perception was confirmed with the intelligence quotient (IQ) test. The prerequisite test employed Kolmogorov-Smirnov, while Bivariate analysis utilized the Independent Sample T-test and Paired Sample T-test of the SPSS 20.0 version. Results. The study showed that MP and DP had different positive contribution values to the tennis drive (p=0.003, p<0.05), while distributed gave a better contribution to the tennis drive with a significant value (p=0.001, p<0.05). The high arm muscle strength provides high accuracy in groundstroke (p=0.003, p<0.05), also for the high score on the intelligence test significantly affect the accuracy of tennis strokes (p=0.000, p<0.05). Conclusions.  The results showed that there are differences in exercise methods, arm muscle strength, and intelligence quotient against tennis drive punches.


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Author Biographies

Djoko Nugroho, University of Sebelas Maret; Faculty of Sports, University of Sebelas Maret; Solo, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia.

Mohammad F. Hidayatullah, University of Sebelas Maret; Faculty of Sports, University of Sebelas Maret; Solo, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia.

Muchsin Doewes, University of Sebelas Maret; Faculty of Sports, University of Sebelas Maret; Solo, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia.

Sapta K. Purnama, University of Sebelas Maret; Faculty of Sports, University of Sebelas Maret; Solo, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia.


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How to Cite

Nugroho D, Hidayatullah MF, Doewes M, Purnama SK. The effects of massed and distributed drills, muscle strength, and intelligence quotients towards tennis groundstroke skills of sport students. Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports. 2022;27(1):14-23.

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