Relationship of anthropometric measurement and handgrip strength in Malaysian recreational tenpin bowlers




handgrip strength, tenpin bowling, anthropometry, hand dimensions, dynamometer


Background and Study Aim. Established studies show that athletes with longer fingers and broader hand surfaces have more muscular grips. Therefore, some research studies have examined various contributing factors and anthropometric characteristics. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hand dimensions and selected anthropometric characteristics on handgrip strength in recreational tenpin bowlers. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study recruited 32 (12 females, 20 males) healthy Malaysian recreational tenpin bowlers from Kuala Lumpur. Their anthropometric characteristics including height, weight, body mass index (BMI), the dimensions of the right hand, and age were measured accordingly. Handgrip strength was assessed using a Takei 5401 Grip D (Digital Grip Dynamometer) with 3 trials for both hands. A Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis were used to study the relationship between the parameters. Results. The body height and the minimum breadth of the right hand had a significant impact on handgrip strength among recreational tenpin bowlers. There was a significant difference between males and females in left and right handgrip strength (p<0.05). Males showed a greater handgrip strength compared to females in both hands’ strength. Body height (p = 0.00) and the minimum breadth of the hand (p = 0.03) were found to be significantly correlated with the handgrip strength thus indicating the two variables as strong predictors of handgrip strength. Conclusions. This study confirms that there is a relationship between anthropometric characteristics and handgrip strength in Malaysian recreational tenpin bowlers. Hence, it will be a great note for new bowlers to advance their bowling performance.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Azrena Zaireen Ahmad Zahudi, University of Malaya; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Juliana Usman, University of Malaya; Senior Lecturer, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Noor Azuan Abu Osman, University of Malaya; Senior Lecturer, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


Cint. Malaysia: What sports do you regularly participate in? [Internet]; 2018 [cited 2018 August 20]. Available from:

Barnes C. Conventional grip vs finger tip grip bowling ball drilling [Internet]; 2020 Mar 19 [cited 2021 July 20]. Available from:

Carruba R. Advancing to a fingertip bowling ball grip [Internet]; 2013 Feb 02 [cited 2022 Nov 01]. Available from:

Winning D. How many muscles do humans have in their fingers? [Internet]; 2018 [cited 2022 Dec 20]. Available from:

Brittney Mitchell LW. Anatomy, shoulder and upper limb, forearm muscles. StatsPearls Publishing; 2022.

Jace Erwin MV. Anatomy, shoulder and upper limb, wrist joint. StatsPearls Publishing; 2022.

Armstrong B. The importance of forearm strength and how to build it. [Internet]; 2019 [cited 2022 Dec 20]. Available from:

Cronin J, Lawton T, Harris N, Kilding A, McMaster DT. A Brief Review of Handgrip Strength and Sport Performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2017;31(11):3187–217.

Razman R. Critical parameters of the delivery in tenpin bowling [PhD Thesis]. Kuala Lumpur [MY]: University of Malaya; 2013 [cited 2022 Dec 20]. Available from:

Razman R, Cheong JPG, Wan Abas WAB, Abu Osman NA. Anthropometric and strength characteristics of tenpin bowlers with different playing abilities. Biology of Sport, 2012;29(1):33–38.

Wagh DPD, Birajdar G, Nagavekar DM. Comparison of handgrip muscle strength in sportsmen and sedentary group. IORS Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, 2017;16(7): 62-65.

Chu DPK, Zhang B-m, Mau K. Tenpin bowling technique on elite players. In: Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports [Internet]; 2002 [cited 2022 Dec 20]. Available from:

Razman R, Abas WABW, Osman NAA, Cheong JPG. Temporal Characteristics of the Final Delivery Phase and Its Relation to Tenpin Bowling Performance. In: Osman NAA, Abas WABW, Wahab AKA, Ting HN (eds.) 5th Kuala Lumpur International Conference on Biomedical Engineering 2011, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 2011. p. 222–224.

Strickland R. Bowling: Steps to success. Champaign, Human Kinetics; 1996.

Lee H-M, Lee H-D, Lee S-C. Biomechanical analysis of a bowling swing. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 2006;16(3):53–63.

Walker O. Force-velocity curve [Internet]; 2016 [cited 2022 Dec 20]. Available from:

Dhananjaya JR, Veena HC, Mamatha BS, Sudarshan CR. Comparative study of body mass index, hand grip strength, and handgrip endurance in healthy individuals. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2017;7(6):594–8.

Richards L, Olson B, Palmiter-Thomas P. How Forearm Position Affects Grip Strength. Am J Occup Ther. 1996;50(2):133–9.

Al-Asadi JN. Handgrip strength in medical students: Correlation with body mass index and hand dimensions. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences, 2018;9(1):21–6.

Joshi D, Kumar A. Analysis of Anthropometric Variables As Predictive Factor For Female Long Jumpers. International Journal of Movement Education and Social Science, 2016;5(1):25–8.

Bartonietz K. Biomechanical Aspects of The Performance Structure in Throwing Events. Modern Athlete and Coach, 1996;34(2):7–11.

Joyce C, Burnett A, Cochrane J, Reyes A. A preliminary investigation of trunk and wrist kinematics when using drivers with different shaft properties. Sports Biomech. 2016;15(1):61–75.

Heston N. Using Mechanics of A Double Pendulum to Maximize Sport Performance. Bridges: A Journal of Student Research, 2020;13(13):1–4.

Slowinski J. 5-Step Drill - Does It Look Familiar [Internet]; 2007 [cited 2022 Dec 20]. Available from:

Pavlović R. Influence of anthropometric and kinematic parameters on result successfulness of shot put finalists (WC Berlin 2009-Daegu 2011). Journal of Physical Education Research, 2019;6(1):29–37.

King K, Perkins NC, Churchill H, McGinnis R, Doss R, Hickland R. Bowling ball dynamics revealed by miniature wireless MEMS inertial measurement unit. Sports Engineering, 2011;13(2):95–104.

Lee K-S, Hwang J. Investigation of grip strength by various body postures and gender in Korean adults. IOS Press. 2019;62(5):117–23.

Liao K-H. Hand Grip Strength in Low, Medium, and High Body Mass Index Males and Females. Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health, 2016;3(1).

Saifuzzaman AD, Noor Hisan FNA, Mohd Yasak HA, Chen Kai L, Bani NA, Mohd Noor N, et al. Relationship between Demographic Characteristics and Hand Grip Measurement of Students in UTMKL. J. Adv. Res. Appl. Mech. 2020; 29(1):9–19.

Nurul Shahida MS, Siti Zawiah MD, Case K. The relationship between anthropometry and hand grip strength among elderly Malaysians. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2015;50:17–25.

Patel A, Qureshi R, Chakravarty PG, Professor A. Comparative study of maximal grip strength in the left and right hand in left handed and right handed individuals. International Journal of Basic and Applied Physiology. 2016;5(1):178–81.

Alahmari KA, Silvian SP, Reddy RS, Kakaraparthi VN, Ahmad I, Alam MM. Hand grip strength determination for healthy males in Saudi Arabia: A study of the relationship with age, body mass index, hand length and forearm circumference using a hand-held dynamometer. Journal of International Medical Research, 2017;45(2):540–8.

Aswathy V. The Relation Between Hand Grip Strength with Hand Anthropometric Variable in Inter-University Level Softball and Cricket Players. International Journal of Physiology Nutrition and Physical Education, 2018;4(1):1901–4.

Liao K-H. Optimal Handle Grip Span for Maximum Han Grip Strength and Accurate Grip Control Strength Exertion According to Individual Hand Size. Journal of Osteoporosis & Physical Activity, 2016;4(2):1–6.

Stefopoulos V, Iatridou K, Karagiannakis D, Mandalidis D. Postural control in male ten-pin bowlers of different level of competitiveness. International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, 2020;9(1):16–25.

Vishesh S, Panda S, Isukhvinder Singh T, Gaurav K. Association of anthropometric measurements of hand and forearm with grip strength in basketball and volleyball players. European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020;7(7):4722–37.

Zapartidis I, Palamas A, Papa M, Tsakalou L, Kotsampouikidou Z. Relationship among Anthropometric Characteristics, Handgrip Strength and Throwing Velocity in Adolescent Handball Players. Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management, 2016;3(1):127–39.

SantoPietro D. Rotational Inertia [Internet]; 2016 [cited 2022 Dec 20]. Available from:

Foo LH, Zhang Q, Zhu K, Ma G, Greenfield H, Fraser DR. Influence of body composition, muscle strength, diet and physical activity on total body and forearm bone mass in Chinese adolescent girls. British Journal of Nutrition, 2007;98(6):1281–7.

Pieterse S, Manandhar M, Ismail S. The association between nutritional status and handgrip strength in older Rwandan refugees. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2002;56:933–9.

Visnapuu M, Jürimäe T. Handgrip strength and hand dimensions in young handball and basketball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2007;21(3):923–9.

Fleisig GS, Barrentine SW, Zheng N, Escamilla RF, Andrews JR. Kinematic and kinetic comparison of baseball pitching among various levels of development. Journal of Biomechanics, 1999;18(6):409–14.

Pizzigalli L, Cremasco MM, Torre AL, Rainoldi A, Benis R, Antonio La Torre A, et al. Hand grip strength and anthropometric characteristics in Italian female national basketball teams. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 2017;57(5):521–8.



— Updated on 2023-04-30

How to Cite

Ahmad Zahudi AZ, Usman J, Abu Osman NA. Relationship of anthropometric measurement and handgrip strength in Malaysian recreational tenpin bowlers. Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports. 2023;27(2):131-8.

Abstract views: 141 / PDF downloads: 76