Blood types and fitness capability of physical education students: a non-parametric analysis
Keywords:blood types, fitness capability, physical education, non-parametric analysis
AbstractBackground and the Study Aim. The study describes the association of blood types and physical fitness capability of physical education students. Material and Methods. A non-parametric analysis was used in the study employing chi-square with the Cramer’s V analysis to provide the likelihood relationship between variables. Using the simple random sampling, there were 263 participants composed of 198 (75.3%) females and 65 (24.7%) males. The samples were all students from physical education subject with the age ranged from 17-34 years old. Results. The finding showed that among the physical fitness capability of the PE students, only anaerobic and flexibility fitness have positive association to blood types. Further, anaerobic fitness has the likelihood to be more advantageous within the A blood type with 57.1%. While flexibility fitness is seen in blood type O with a likelihood association of 79.1%, A with 60.7%, and B 55.3%. Moreover, this implies that PE students’ physical fitness capability such as anaerobic and flexibility fitness are potentiality associated or related to blood types most specifically to “A” and “O.” Thus, in any fitness related physical activity, blood type must be considered in the selection process especially if instills high intensity exercises producing without oxygen and muscle range extension. Conclusion. It has been concluded that physical fitness capability of an individual can be attributed or influenced by the type of blood he/she possesses. Thus, in the context of sports and dance competition that requires specific physical fitness level, it is recommended to consider blood types of a person.
Pescatello L. American College of Sports Medicine: ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health; 2014.
Pérez LR, Reigal RE, Hernández MA. Relationships between physical practice, physical condition, and attention in a sample of adolescents. J. Sport Psychol. 2016; 25:179–186.
Reloba MS, Reigal RE, Hernández MA, Martínez LEJ, Martín TI, Chirosa RLJ. Effects of vigorous extracurricular physical exercise on the attention of schoolchildren. J. Sport Psychol. 2017;26, 29–36.
Reigal RE, Barrero S, Martín I, Morales SV, Juárez RR, Hernánde MA. Relationships between reaction time, selective attention, physical activity, and physical fitness in children. Front. Psychol. 2019;10:2278. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02278
Garcia MA, Custodio ER. Home quarantine - based rhythmic exercises: new fitness assessment and intervention in teaching physical education. Physical Education of Students, 2021;25(1):51–57. https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2021.0107
Tanucan JCM, Garcia MA, Bojos MT. Housework-based exercise versus conventional exercise on healthrelated fitness of adolescent learners. Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, 2022;26(6):364–373. https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2022.0602
Okely AD, Booth ML, Patterson JW. Relationship of physical activity to fundamental movement skills among adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 2001;33(11): 1899–1904. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200111000-00015
Garcia M, Bojos M, Sy G. Potential Factors in Engaging Physical Activity beyond Physical Education. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science, 2021;6(10). https://doi.org/10.46827/ejpe.v6i10.3571
Costa PT, McCrae RR. Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources;1992.
Wu K, Lindsted KD, Lee JW. Blood type and the five factors of personality in Asia. Personality and Individual Differences. 2005;38(4): 797–808. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2004.06.004
Garcia MA. Predictors of young adults’ movement capability in physical activity. Physical Education of Students 2022;26(3):105-16. https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2022.0301
Kadhum SA, Hattab,WA, Abduwahhab, MM. Relationship of ABO Blood Groups with Body Mass Index. Medico-Legal Update, 2020;20(4):1610–3. https://doi.org/10.37506/mlu.v20i4.2070
Dwyer GB, Davis SE. (Eds.). ACSM’s health-related physical fitness assessment manual (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA:WoltersKluwer /Lippincott Williams&Wilkins; 2008.
Bandyopadhyay A. Validity of cooper’s 12-minute run test for estimation of maximum oxygenuptake in male university students. Biol Sport. 2015;32(1):59–63. https://doi.org/10.5604/20831862.1127283
Johnson PC. Comparison of a Four 40-Yard Sprint Test for Anaerobic Capacity in Males Vs. the Wingate Anaerobic Test. Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2007;77.
Gottelieb N, Chen M. Socio-cultural correlates of childhood sporting activities: their implications for heart health. Social Science of Medicine, 1985;533-539. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/4049022/
Beekhuizen KS, Davis MD, Kolber MJ, Cheng MS. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change of the hexagon agility test. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(7):2167–71. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b439f0
Rodríguez-Rosell D, Mora-Custodio R, Franco-Márquez F, Yáñez-García JM, González-Badillo JJ. Traditional vs. Sport-Specific Vertical Jump Tests: Reliability, Validity, and Relationship With the Legs Strength and Sprint Performance in Adult and Teen Soccer and Basketball Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2017;31(1):196–206. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000001476
Mayorga-Vega D, Merino-Marban R, Viciana J. Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis. J Sports Sci Med. 2014;13(1):1–14 https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2014.91.18
Wallace L, Buckworth J, Kirby T, Sherman W. Characteristics of exercise behavior among college students: application of social cognitive theory to predicting stage of change. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 2010;1:30–36.
Krahnstoever Davison K, Cutting TM, Birch LL. Parents Activity-Related Parenting Practices Predict Girls Physical Activity: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2003;35(9): 1589–1595. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000084524.19408.0C
Department of Health. What is the most common blood type? [Internet]; 2012 Oct 23 [cited 2022 Nov 15]. Available from: https://doh.gov.ph/node/1447
Reigal RE, Moral-Campillo L, Mier RJR de, Morillo-Baro JP, Morales-Sánchez V, Pastrana JL, et al. Physical Fitness Level Is Related to Attention and Concentration in Adolescents. Frontiers in Psychology. 2020;11: 110. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00110
Hanifah RA, Majid HA, Jalaludin MY, Al-Sadat N, Murray LJ, Cantwell M, et al. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(S3): S5. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-S3-S5
Hou Y, Mei G, Liu Y, Xu W. Physical fitness with regular lifestyle is positively related to academic performance among Chinese medical and dental students. BioMed Research International. 2020;16:2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/5602395
Chu CH, Chen FT, Pontifex MB, Sun Y, Chang YK. Health-related physical fitness, academic achievement, and neuroelectric measures in children and adolescents. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2019;17(2):117–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2016.1223420
Kinnunen MI, Suihko J, Hankonen N, Absetz P, Jallinoja P. Self-control is associated with physical activity and fitness among young males. Behavioral Medicine, 2012;38(3):83–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/08964289.2012.693975
Kahan D, McKenzie TL. School and neighborhood predictors of physical fitness in elementary school students. Journal of School Health, 2017;87(6):448–56. https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12516
D’Adamo M. The Power of Heart [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2021 Nov 15]. Available from: https://www.4yourtype.com/february-2018-dadamonewsletter/
Yeh TK, Cho YC, Yeh TC, Hu CY, Lee LC, Chang CY. An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship between Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Cognitive/Academic Performance among Adolescents. BioMed Research International, 2015;2015: 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/520619
Grodesky JM, Kosma M, Solmon MA. Understanding Older Adults’ Physical Activity Behavior: A MultiTheoretical Approach. Quest. 2006;58(3): 310–329. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2006.10491885
Sullivan R. Entrepreneurial Learning and Mentoring. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 2000;6(3):160–175. https://doi.org/10.1108/13552550010346587
Dean L. Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 2005. Chapter 5, The ABO blood group. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2267
Franchini M, Mengoli C, Bonfanti C, Rossi C, Lippi, G. Genetic determinants of extreme longevity: the role of ABO blood group. Thromb Haemost, 2016;115:458–60. https://doi.org/10.1160/TH15-05-0379
Franchini M, Lippi G. The intriguing relationship between the ABO blood group, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. BMC Med, 2015;13:7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-014-0250-y
Franchini M, Favaloro EJ, Targher G, Lippi G. ABO blood group, hypercoagulability, and cardiovascular and cancer risk. Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, 2012;49(4): 137–149. https://doi.org/10.3109/10408363.2012.708647
Fagherazzi G, Gusto G, Clavel-Chapelon F, Balkau B, Bonnet F. ABO and Rhesus blood groups and risk of type 2 diabetes: evidence from the large E3N cohort study. Diabetologia. 2015;58(3): 519–522. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-014-3472-9
Franchini M, Lippi G. Relative Risks of Thrombosis and Bleeding in Different ABO Blood Groups. Semin Thromb Hemost, 2016;42:112–7. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0035-1564832
Allen DD. Proposing 6 Dimensions Within the Construct of Movement in the Movement Continuum Theory. Physical Therapy. 2007;87(7): 888–898. https://doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20060182
Ferguson B. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription 9th Ed. 2014. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2014;58(3):328.
Wasserman K. The anaerobic threshold: definition, physiological significance and identification. Advances in Cardiology, 1986;35:1–23. https://doi.org/10.1159/000413434
Temür HA, Vardar SA, Demir M, Palabıyık O, Karaca A, Guksu Z, Ortanca A, Süt N. The alteration of NTproCNP plasma levels following anaerobic exercise in physically active young men. Anatolian Journal of Cardiology, 2015;15(2):97. https://doi.org/10.5152/akd.2014.5204
Salvadori A, Fanari P, Marzullo P, Codecasa F, Tovaglieri I, Cornacchia M, Brunani A, Luzi L, Longhini E. Short bouts of anaerobic exercise increase non-esterified fatty acids release in obesity. European Journal of Nutrition, 2014;53:243–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-013-0522-x
Clark MA, Lucett SC. NASM Essentials of Sports Performance. Flexibility Training for Performance Enhancement. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning; 2015. https://samples.jblearning.com/9781284147988/9781284147988_FMxx_Interactiv.pdf
Woods K, Bishop P, Jones E. Warm-up and stretching in the prevention of muscular injury. Sports Med. 2007;37(12):1089–1099. https://doi:10.2165/00007256-200737120-00006
Shrier I. Does stretching improve performance? A systematic and critical review of the literature. Clin J Sport Med. 2004;14(5):267–273. https://doi:10.1097/00042752-200409000-00004
Lippi G, Gandini G, Salvagno GL, Skafidas S, Festa L, Danese E, et al. Influence of ABO blood group on sports performance. Annals of Translational Medicine. 2017;5(12): 255–255. https://doi.org/10.21037/atm.2017.04.33
Kabashniuk V, Bazylchuk O, Khoroshukha M, Putrov S, Sushchenko L. Influence of blood types serologic markers on development of concentration function of young 13-16 year old athletes. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 2018;18(4):1890–1895.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Marino Garcia & Jovelito Alymento Canillas
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright Holder - Author(s). more
Abstract views: 128 / PDF downloads: 32