The impact of existing and modify wrestling shoes on foot posture deformities in 12-13 years old athletes

The Impact of Wrestling Shoes on Foot Posture Deformation

Keywords: wrestling, athlete health, sports shoes, wrestling shoes, flatfoot, leg pain


Background and Study Aim. In the early years when sports footwear became compulsory, the importance of shoe design was not considered in terms of athletes’ health. Since the early years of wrestling shoe use, these gears have been manufactured according to the rules of competition, and modifications have been very limited. In this regard, this study aims to determine the effect of existing wrestling shoes on foot deformation. Material and Methods. The study was carried out with the participation of 108 young male athletes who had the same training on the same ground for three years in the Wrestling Training Center. The athletes were divided into two groups, an experimental and a control group. While the control group wore wrestling shoes produced by widely used brands, the experimental group wore newly designed wrestling shoes. Foot arch values and images of both groups were determined using a podoscope device at the beginning and end of the study. The evaluations were made according to the Staheli arch index. Results. The results of the statistical analysis revealed that differences were found in the footprint measurement values of the control group. It was determined that this difference in the footprints was greater among the freestyle wrestlers. The decrease in the averages between the first and second measurement values of the group using the newly designed wrestling shoes was found to be highly positive and in a linear direction. Also, it was determined that the pain score values of the control group were higher than the scores of the experimental group after training. Conclusions. The results revealed that there were deformations in the feet of the control group wrestlers wearing available wrestling shoes. It was observed that freestyle wrestling athletes had more deformation than Greco-Roman style wrestlers, and leg pains were more prevalent after training and competitions. Based on these results, it was concluded that the design of wrestling shoes produced with today's technology needs to be redesigned.


Download data is not yet available.

View Counter: Abstract | 34 | times, Article PDF |

Author Biographies

Zeki Coşkuner, Fırat University; Department of Recreation, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Fırat University; Elazığ, Turkey.
Mahmut Açak, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University; Department of Coaching Education, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University; Çanakkale, Turkey.
Hakan Büyükçelebi, Inonu University; Department of Coaching Education, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Inonu University; Malatya, Turkey.
Gökmen Özen, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University; Department of Physical Education and Sports Teaching, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University; Çanakkale, Turkey.
Kemal Kurak, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University; Department of Recreation, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University; Çanakkale, Turkey.


1. Açak M, Korkmaz MF, Taskiran C, Demirkan E. Investigating the effects of wrestling gear in flatfoot deformity of wrestlers. Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, 2020;24(3):106–110.

2. UWW Uniform Guidelines. [Internet]; 2017 [cited 2022 Jan 15]. Available from:

1. Elliott B, Ilter H. Training in Sport: Applying Sports Science. John Wiley & Sons; 2000.

2. Uetake T, Ohtsuki F. Sagittal Configuration of Spinal Curvature Line in Sportsmen Using Moire Technique. Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica, 1993;70(2-3):91–103.

3. Korkmaz MF, Acak M, Duz S. The effect of sports shoes on flat foot. Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, 2020;24(2):64–71.

4. Hasbi A, Setiawati R, Rahardjo P, Sensusiati AD. Characteristic of Posterior Tibialis Tendon Dysfunction and Adult Acquired Flatfoot Deformity in Professional Athletes. International Journal of Research Publications.2020;60(1):6–16.

5. Lee MS, Vanore JV, Thomas JL, Catanzariti AR, Kogler G, Kravitz SR, Miller SJ, Gassen SC. Diagnosis and Treatment of Adult Flatfoot. The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery, 2005;44(2):78–113.

6. Benedetti MG, Ceccarelli F, Berti L, Luciani D, Catani F, Boschi M, Giannini S. Diagnosis of Flexible Flatfoot in Children: A Systematic Clinical Approach. Orthopedics, 2011;34(2):94.

7. Zhao X, Tsujimoto T, Kim B, Tanaka K. Association of Arch Height With Ankle Muscle Strength and Physical Performance in Adult Men. Biology of Sport, 2017;34(2):119–126.

8. McDonald KA, Stearne SM, Alderson JA, North I, Pires NJ, Rubenson J. The Role of Arch Compression and Metatarsophalangeal Joint Dynamics in Modulating Plantar Fascia Strain in Running. PLoS One. 2016 Apr 7;11(4):e0152602.

9. Prvulović N, Lilić A, Hadžović M. The Prevalence Of Foot Deformities In Athletes With Varıous Sports Backgrounds. Facta Universitatis, Series: Physical Education and Sport, 2021;18(3):667–679.

10. Staheli LT, Chew DE, Corbett M. The longitudinal arch. A survey of eight hundred and eighty-two feet in normal children and adults. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1987 Mar;69(3):426–8.

11. Žukauskas S, Barauskas V, Čekanauskas E. Comparison of multiple flatfoot indicators in 5-8-year-old children. Open Med (Wars). 2021;16(1):246–256.

12. Banwell HA, Paris ME, Mackintosh S, Williams CM. Paediatric flexible flat foot: how are we measuring it and are we getting it right? A systematic review. J Foot Ankle Res. 2018;11:21.

13. Crisan S, Zaharia VD, Curta C, Irimia ED. Computer Assisted Optical Podoscope for Orthostatic Measurements. In: Vlad S, Ciupa RV. (ed) International Conference on Advancements of Medicine and Health Care through Technology. IFMBE Proceedings, vol 36. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. P.226–227.

14. Bennell K, Bartam S, Crossley K, Green S. Outcome measures in patellofemoral pain syndrome: test-retest reliability and inter-relationships. Physical Therapy in Sport, 2000;1(2):32–41.

15. Aydog ST, Tetik O, Demirel HA, Doral MN. Differences in sole arch indices in various sports. Br J Sports Med. 2005 Feb;39(2):e5.

16. Taşkıran C, Açak M, Korkmaz MF. Foot Posture Disorders in Wrestlers. The 10th International Conference In Physical Education, Sports And Physical Therapy. Firat University, Elazi: Turkey; 2016. P. 64.

17. Taşkıran C, Açak M, Korkmaz MF. Foot Posture Distortions Observed in Wrestlers. International Journal of Wrestling Science, 2017;7(1-2):9–13.

18. Wojtys EM, Ashton-Miller JA, Huston LJ, Moga PJ. The association between athletic training time and the sagittal curvature of the immature spine. Am J Sports Med. 2000;28(4):490–8.

19. Gharakhanlou R, Daneshmandi H, Alizadeh, MH. Prevention and Treatment of Sports Injuries. Tehran, Samt; 2010.

20. Kızılcı H. Assesment of pysical fitness parameters and quality of life in men with and without pes planus. [PhD thesis]. Institute of Health Scienceб. Ankara; 2010.

21. Violante FS, Fiori M, Fiorentini C, Risi A, Garagnani G, Bonfiglioli R, Mattioli S. Associations of psychosocial and individual factors with three different categories of back disorder among nursing staff. J Occup Health. 2004 Mar;46(2):100–8.

22. Oskay D, Yakut Y. Comparation of Physical Fitness Parameters in Women With and Without Low Back Pain. Göztepe Tıp Dergisi, 2011;26(3):117–122.

23. Kaufman KR, Brodine SK, Shaffer RA, Johnson CW, Cullison TR. The effect of foot structure and range of motion on musculoskeletal overuse injuries. Am J Sports Med. 1999;27(5):585–93.
How to Cite
Coşkuner Z, Açak M, Büyükçelebi H, Özen G, Kurak K. The impact of existing and modify wrestling shoes on foot posture deformities in 12-13 years old athletes. Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports. 2022;26(5):327-33.

Most read articles by the same author(s)